Second Peter Chapter One

Introduction to Second Peter

  1. Authorship:
    1. The claim to Petrine authorship is stronger in this epistle than in First Peter.
    2. The writer calls himself Simon Peter (1:1) and identifies himself as a witness of the transfiguration (1:16-18); he places himself on a level with the apostle Paul (3:15), identifies himself as a writer of a previous epistle (3:1), and recalls the Lordís prediction concerning his death (1:14).
    3. Yet Second Peter has historically been the most contested book of the N.T. canon, its authenticity being denied by scholars ancient and modern.
    4. Critics claim that Second Peter is the literary product of a second century (c. 150AD) author (a forger) who cleverly sought to gain acceptance for his work under the name of Peter.
  2. Authenticity:
    1. By the end of the fourth century AD the epistle was acknowledged as canonical by the Council of Laodicea (363) and the Third Council of Carthage (397); further, it was admitted into the Vulgate by Jerome (340-420), who expressed doubts based on the difference in style between the two Petrine epistles.
    2. Eusebius, in his famous Ecclesiastical History (324), recorded his doubts concerning Second Peter when he wrote: "As to the writings of Peter, one of his epistles, called the first, is acknowledged as genuine. For this was anciently used by the ancient fathers in their writings, as an undoubted work of the apostle. But that which is called the second, we have not indeed understood to be embodied with the sacred books, yet as it appeared useful to many, it was studiously read with the other Scriptures." And later on in the same book, he says, "Among the disputed books although they are well known and approved by many, is reputed, that called the epistle of James and that of Jude, also the Second Epistle of Peter, and those called the Second and Third of John (III. 25)."
    3. Origenís (185-253) testimony is somewhat ambiguous. He is the first one to distinguish the two epistles ascribed to Peter. In his Commentary on John (V. 3) he writes, "And Peter, on whom the Church of Christ is built, against which the gates of hell shall not prevail, left only one epistle of acknowledged genuineness. Suppose we allow that he left a second; for this is doubtful." There are several passages where Origen expressly quotes Second Peter without indicating any doubt.
    4. The evidence from the third century shows that although there was widespread doubt as to its authenticity, there was a general willingness to respect its contents. Although mentioned with questions, Peterís name is the only name associated with it.
    5. No existing writings for the second century make any express quotations from Second Peter. It is not contained in the Old Syrian Version (c. 200), nor does it appear to have been in the Old Latin Version (before 170), but this is incomplete and also does not list First Peter.
    6. The most important piece of evidence for the use of Second Peter in the second century is found in the Apocalypse of Peter (120-140AD). It contains some striking coincidences with Second Peter. It is concluded that this pseudo book is dependant upon Second Peter, rather than vice versa.
    7. The earliest and most important piece of evidence, taking us into the first century, that we can point to is the epistle of Jude. The basis for this position is that Second Peter is prior to Jude.
  3. The Occasion:
    1. The occasion for Second Peter was the outbreak of heretical teachings within the assemblies addressed in First Peter.
    2. The false teaching was characterized by antinomianism (a perversion of grace).
    3. The false teachers denied the Lord (2:1), were daring and irreverent (2:10b,12), and scoffed at the promise of the Lordís return (3:3,4).
    4. They lived immoral lives (3:3), seduced unstable souls (2:14,18), and caused the way of truth to be maligned (2:2).
    5. They were characterized by insubordination to established authority (2:10c,12).
  4. The Date and Place:
    1. It cannot be dated later than 68AD, the year of Neroís death.
    2. It was written after First Peter, and near the end of Peterís life (1:14).
    3. Since Peter died before Paul, the approximate date is 65AD.
    4. It is generally held that Second Peter, like First Peter, was written from Rome.
  5. The Purpose of Second Peter:
    1. It is a warning against falling victim to heresy (3:17).
    2. It is a call to continued spiritual growth, the antidote to false teaching (1:11,12; 3:18).
  6. The Characteristics of Second Peter:
    1. The keynote of Second Peter is knowledge. The words know or knowledge, in their varied forms, occur sixteen times in this epistle. Six times the intensive form, signifying full-knowledge, is used.
    2. True knowledge is the believerís safeguard against all heresy. Believers today are confronted with a plethora of heretical cults and doctrines of demons.
  7. Style:
    1. First Peter is generally smooth Greek, while Second Peter has a certain roughness of style and is more labored and awkward Greek.
    2. To attempt to establish authorship solely on the basis of style is always precarious. A manís style varies with his mood, his subject, his purpose, and his sources.
    3. This difference in style between the two epistles may perhaps be accounted for by the assumption of Peterís use of an amanuensis for First Peter (Silvanus).
    4. Silvanus may have had a hand in the shaping of the language of First Peter, but Second Peter may well be Peterís own writing, since no mention is made of a scribe.
    5. A weighty argument in favor of the authenticity of Second Peter is its acknowledged superiority to all other known pseudonymous writings. Farrar remarks, "Who will venture to assert than any Apostolic Father - that Clement of Rome, or Ignatius, or Polycarp, or Hermas, or Justin Martyr Ė could have written so much as twenty consecutive verses so eloquent and so powerful as those of the Second Epistle of St. Peter (Farrar, F.W., The Early Days of Christianity, New York: Cassell & Company, Ltd.)."
  8. Summary:
    1. Second Peter was slow to receive recognition within the Church.
    2. Second Peter competed with a flurry of pseudo Petrine books on into the second century (Gospel of St. Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, etc.).
    3. If Second Peter were the product of a forger, then that person had to assume a certain amount of misrepresentation. "The real author of any such work had to keep himself altogether out of sight, and its entry upon circulation had to be surrounded with a certain amount of mystery, in order that the strangeness of its appearance at a more or less considerable interval after the putative authorís death might be concealed (Journal of Theological Studies, ii. 19, by Moffatt)."
    4. Such a work is termed a "pious fraud" and merits no place in the N.T. canon.
    5. The conservative view eliminates all implications of deception in the personal references in the epistle, and furnishes the best and least confusing solution to the problem.
    6. We concur with Ebright: "When we discover an epistle which has the dignity and originality and high ethical character of Second Peter, in which are no anachronisms that the most searching investigation can discover, and in which are found no absurd miracles or foolish legends or heretical teaching contrary to the spirit and character of Peter, but in which there are touches that remind one of the fiery apostle described in the Acts and the Gospels, and in the very body of which there are claims of Petrine authorship, and which commended itself in the course of years to the general body of Christians when tested in the crucible of experience, then it is a fair conclusion that we have here a genuine message of the Apostle-Preacher Peter, and the world of the twentieth century can profit greatly by heeding his threefold message (The Petrine Epistles, A Critical Study of Authorship, The Methodist Book Concern, 1917)."
    7. Denial of Petrine authorship presents us with "an insoluble psychological riddle" in the words of Fronmuller: "Is it possible that a man animated through and through with the spirit of Christianity, who expressly renounces all cunning fabrications, should have set up for the Apostle Peter, and have written this Epistle in his name? Intentional fraud and such illumination - who is able to reconcile them? ("The Second Epistle General of Peter", Langeís Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, p. 5)."
Greetings (vv.1,2)

The Author and His Equals (v.1)

VERSE 1 Simon Peter, a bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ (Sumew.n Pe,troj dou/loj kai. avpo,stoloj VIhsou/ Cristou/ [n.m.s., Peterís Aramaic name, + n.m.s., his nickname given to him by Jesus, + n.m.s., doulos, slave, servant, + n.m.s., apostolos, apostle, + gen./relationship m.s., Iesous Christos]), to those who have received a faith of the same kind as ours (toi/j lacou/sin pi,stin ivso,timon h`mi/n [def.art.w/aor.act.pt.dat.m.p., lagca,nw, lagchano, receive; allocate; cast or draw lots; 4X: Lk.1:9; Jn.19:24; Acts.1:17, + acc.f.s., pistis, faith, + adj.acc.f.s., ivso,tmoj, isotmos, equal in honor or privilege; 1X; compound from time/honor & equal, + pro.dat.p., ego, "as ours"]), by the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ (evn dikaiosu,nh| tou/ qeou/ h`mw/n kai. swth/roj VIhsou/ Cristou/ [prep. w/instr.f.s., dikaiosune, righteousness, + def.art.w/gen.m.s., theos, + pro.gen.p., ego, "our", + conj. + gen.m.s., swth,r, soter, savior, + gen.m.s., Iesous Christos]):

ANALYSIS: VERSE 1

  1. Peter introduces himself as "Simon Peter, a bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ".
  2. In First Peter he calls himself simply, "Peter, apostle of Jesus Christ".
  3. A forger would hardly have added "Simon" and would have scarcely added "slave" to "apostle".
  4. He would have copied the introduction of First Peter.
  5. "Simon" is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew "Simeon".
  6. "Peter" was the nick-name he received from the Lord and the name by which he was called by the Christian community (Mt.4:18; 16:16-18; Lk.5:8; 7:40; 22:31; Jn.1:40; 6:8,68; 13:6,9,36; 18:10,15,25; 20:2,6; 21:2,3,7,11,15; Acts.10:5,6,18,32; 11:13; Gal.2:7,8; 2Pet.1:1).
  7. Peter intends to emphasize his Jewish antecedents.
  8. When he designates himself "slave of Jesus Christ", as Paul does at times, he does not refer to his office, for "apostle" does that.
  9. "Slave" places Peter on the same level with his readers as being one who, like his readers, submits to the directive will of the divine Master who bought him (i.e., out of the slave market of sin), and them, to be His own (1Cor.6:20; 7:23).
  10. The connotation of doulos is not involuntary service but unconditional submission to Jesus Christ the Master.
  11. The background is the institution of slavery within the Roman world.
  12. "Apostle" fortifies the readers against the heretical antinomians who mock at the Lordís glorious Parousia.
  13. Peter is one of those slaves who the Lord has commissioned an "apostle of Jesus Christ" and who is responsible to shepherd the flock of God during his time on earth.
  14. By writing this letter he is providing a deterrent to the growing apostasy and a polemic for those who are sincere in their faith.
  15. Liberal critics tell us that somebody living in the second century impersonated Peter with no wrong intention, but only to magnify Peter, and that we should not speak of a forger since our present ideas about such things differ entirely from the notions of the second century.
  16. These critics would be right provided the impersonator of Peter indicated that he was impersonating with harmless intent.
  17. Compare the greeting found in First Peter, even those greetings found in all the N.T. letters; they are all alike.
  18. If the opening nominative in any one of them is intended as a harmless impersonation of the person named, that fact is hidden, completely hidden.
  19. The name for such an action is forgery.
  20. The moral sense of all ages resents it as forgery, and not merely literary forgery, but as forgery of the WOG!
  21. Smithís Bible Dictionary calls it "Satanic".
  22. The dative designates the readers in regular letter form: "To those who have received a faith of the same kind/value as ours".
  23. Peter did not add the name of some geographical locale (for reasons not known to us) as he did in First Peter.
  24. This dative reads as though all who have such faith are addressed, yet students agree that Peter wrote to Christians in some unspecified locality.
  25. With this dative he describes them as people who have received/obtained faith that is just as valuable and viable as that which "we" have obtained.
  26. This general circular epistle is addressed to Christians who have obtained the same kind of doctrinal instruction as has Peter and the Christians who are with him at Rome.
  27. It is important to Peter that they recognize that the doctrinal integrity ("faith") that is their allotment is valued just as highly as that of the Christian community at Rome.
  28. The verb "received" is an aorist active participle of laca,nw (lachano), which means to obtain by allotment.
  29. The verb is used 4X in the N.T.: Lk.1:9; Jn.19:24; Acts.1:17; 2Pet.1:1.
  30. In Acts it is used of Judas Ischariotís selection as one of the original twelve apostles.
  31. Here it is used of the character and content of the doctrinal faith among the Christians at Rome as well as that of the original recipients.
  32. God values the doctrinal integrity of the recipients just as highly as He does that of Peter and the Roman Christians.
  33. The readers are to do the same.
  34. The implication, as the body of the letter shows, is that the readers must preserve and guard this faith in the face of contradictory propaganda.
  35. This letter is designed to fortify that faith having been previously received.
  36. There is no distinction between what Peter and company possess and what the readers have heard; there is equality of content.
  37. The adjective "the same kind" (ivso,timoj isotimos; 1x) means of the same value (cp. Acts.11:17, where the adjective accusative feminine singular of isoj [isos, equal] occurs).
  38. "Faith" here refers to the object of their hearing, not the means of assimilation.
  39. This issue is settled at the outset; nothing further needs to be said.
  40. The Jewish apostle takes his Gentile readers into the Word of prophecy and fortifies them so that they may be fully prepared for the Lordís coming and the end of all things.
  41. The phrase "by the righteousness" (evn dikaiosu,nh|) means that the faith they obtained was righteous, as God is +R.
  42. The phrase could be translated "on the basis of righteousness".
  43. Their faith is built on the bedrock of Godís perfect Righteousness.
  44. What these Christians obtained over the course of their Ph2 is righteous, as God is righteous.
  45. This phrase is followed by the grand genitive "of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ" (tou/ qeou/ h`mw/n kai. swth/roj VIhsou/ Cristou/).
  46. The single definite article (tou/) serves both the nouns "God" and "Savior", indicating that "God and our Savior" is one and the same person.
  47. The effort to find a reference to two persons, God and Christ, is nullified linguistically by the use of but one article in the Greek (Granville Sharp construction).
  48. The deity of Christ stands forth here as a bulwark against all heresy to the contrary (cf. 2:1).
  49. The N.T. writers deliberately annexed for their divine Master the phraseology of Ptolemaic and Imperial times that was ascribed to some of their worst men.
  50. The Roman emperors allowed the terms o` Qeo,j and o` Ku,rioj and Swth,r ( a divine person that saves) to be used of themselves as pagan titles.
  51. The language here, along with the historical setting, asserts that Jesus Christ was regarded not only as Savior but as God.
  52. Paul applies Swth,r to Christ as well as to God (cp. the word of the angel in Lk.2:11).
  53. The very name "Jesus" means "Savior".
  54. He is the Rescuer who rescues us from sin and condemnation and places us into complete eternal security.
  55. The fact that He is fully God is added to indicate His power as Savior.
  56. The pronoun "our" indicates a bond or relationship that believers possess based on the perfect Righteousness of God.
  57. In summary, the recipients are assured by none other than that Jewish apostle, Peter, that their understanding of the POG is of equal value to that of Peter and the Christians who are with him.
  58. Therefore, they are not to give in to the bastardized version of Christianity that rivals what they have previously been taught.
The Wish (v.2)

VERSE 2 Grace and peace be multiplied to you (ca,rij u`mi/n kai. eivrh,nh plhqunqei,h [n.f.s., charis, grace, + conj. + n.f.s., eirene, peace, + aor.pass.opt.3.s., plhqu,nw, plethuno, multiply; cp. 1Pet.1:2; Jude.2]) in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord (evn evpignw,sei tou/ qeou/ kai. VIhsou/ tou/ kuri,ou h`mw/n [prep.w/loc.f.s., epignosis, full knowledge, + def.art.w/gen.m.s., theos, God, + conj. + gen.m.s., Iesous, + def.art.w/gen.m.s., kurios, + pro.gen.p., ego; "our"]);
 
 

ANALYSIS: VERSE 2

  1. The greeting is in three parts: the author (v.1a), the recipients (v.1b), and the optative of wish.
  2. We find the optative of wish in First Peter and Jude.
  3. "Grace" refers specifically to grace orientation as it is connected with "the knowledge (epignosis) of God and of Jesus our Lord".
  4. This same aspect of grace is found at the end of the letter in the command to "grow in grace and knowledge" (gnosis).
  5. Peterís wish is that the recipients expand their capacity for Godís grace.
  6. "Peace" refers to inner peace.
  7. Inner peace is what Jesus promised His disciples in Jn.14:27 and 16:33.
  8. It is activated via prayer (Phil.4:6,7).
  9. It is fed through GAP.
  10. The verb "be multiplied" in the present form (aor.pass.opt.) also occurs in the greetings of First Peter (1:2) and Jude (2).
  11. The multiplication (or increase) of grace orientation and the relaxed mental attitude is accomplished through knowledge.
  12. Hence, the importance of verse-by-verse teaching under face-to-face instruction.
  13. The knowledge Peter has in mind is the true or full knowledge "of God and of Jesus our Lord".
  14. As in v.1, faith (BD) is obtained "on the basis of" righteousness, so here grace and peace are "on the basis of" knowledge.
  15. Faith in v.1 and knowledge in v.2 both refer to the content of the WOG.
  16. With Peterís wish regarding the epignosis, compare Paulís prayer in Eph.1:16-23 (espec. v.17), Phil.1:9, and Col.1:9,10
  17. Epignosis means a full or accurate understanding of a subject (cf. Rom.3:20; 10:2; Eph.1:17; 4:13; Phil.1:9,10; Col.1:9,10; 2:2; 3:10; 1Tim.2:4; 2Tim.2:25; 3:7; Ti.1:1; Philm.1:6; Heb.10:26; 2Pet.1:2,3,8; 2:20).
  18. Gnosis sometimes refers to false information, while epignosis is always used in the N.T. of correct information.
  19. So epignosis is knowledge that is understood and accurate.
  20. This knowledge is about/concerning God and His Son; that is the thrust of the subjective genitive (as in "love of God"; here X loves God, or in our verse X knows God).
  21. This knowledge is the counter to the assault of the pseudo-teachers who are bothering the recipients.
All We Need is Epignosis (v.3)

VERSE 3 seeing that His divine power (~Wj auvtou/ th/j qei,aj duna,mewj [particle/temporal, hos; "seeing that", + pro.gen.m.s., autos; "His", + def.art.w/adj.gen.f.s., qei/oj, theios, divine nature; 3X: Acts.17:29; 2Pet.1:3,4, + gen.f.s., dunamis, power]) has granted to us everything pertaining to life and godliness (dedwrhme,nhj h`mi/n pa,nta ta. pro.j zwh.n kai. euvse,beian [pf.dep.pt.gen.f.s., dewre,omai, deoreomai, bestow upon; 3X: Mk.15:45; 2Pet.1:3,4, + adj.acc.nt.p., pas, all, + def.art.acc.nt.p.w/pas, + "everything", + prep., pros, w/acc.f.s., zoe, life, + conj. + acc.f.s., eusebeia, godliness]), through the true knowledge [dia. th/j evpignw,sewj [prep.w/def.art.w/gen.f.s., epignosis, knowledge]) of Him who called us by His own glory and excellence (tou/ kale,santoj h`ma/j ivdi,a| do,xh| kai. avreth/ [def.art. w/aor.act.pt.gen.m.s., kaleo, call, + pro.acc.p., ego; "us", + adj.dat.f.s., idios, oneís own, + dat.f.s., doxa, glory, + conj. + dat.f.s., arete, moral excellence, goodness; 5X: Phil.4:8; 1Pet.2:9; 2Pet.1:3,5]).

ANALYSIS: VERSE 3

  1. The next two verses are linked syntactically with v.2.
  2. Verses 3 and following read like an elaboration of the thought of v.2.
  3. Note the repetition of "knowledge" in verses 2 and 3.
  4. So vv.2-4 constitute one long sentence in the Greek.
  5. These three verses prepare the ground for the exhortation in vv.5-7.
  6. Verse 3 begins with the particle/conjunction wvj (hos) introducing discourse.
  7. "Seeing that" brings out the thought well.
  8. "His divine power" refers, from v.2, to the Omnipotence of Christ who, as God, supplies to positive volition everything necessary to achieve Ph2 sanctification (maturity adjustment).
  9. The noun "divine" (here with the def.art., qei/on) refers to God by nature, or essence (cp. Acts.17:29; 2Pet.1:4).
  10. The attribute that is in the foreground is Omnipotence, as seen in the noun "power".
  11. "Has granted" is the main verb (pf.dep.pt.gen.f.s.) and acts as a genitive absolute.
  12. The genitive absolute participial construction is circumstantial (adverbial) and temporal.
  13. It occurs with a noun in the genitive case with a definite article (anarthrous).
  14. The perfect tense here is used of the present state of affairs resulting from a past action.
  15. The perfect tense is used less frequently than the present, aorist, future, or imperfect; when it is used, there is usually a deliberate choice on the part of the writer.
  16. The perfect tense combines in itself, so to speak, the present and the aorist in that it denotes the continuance of completed action.
  17. God, in the divine decrees (past), "has granted to us" the essentials necessary for "life and godliness" (present action).
  18. Here, the perfect emphasizes the completed action of a past process from which a present state emerges.
  19. It should here be translated in English as a present perfect (this usage is common).
  20. In summary, like the same finite verb of v.4 (pf.dep.ind.), the perfect participle "has granted" implies that the past act of granting continues its effect to the present day and forward.
  21. The verb dewre,omai (deoreomai) is a derivative of the noun dw,rhma (dorema, gift): to make a gift.
  22. That is exactly what Christís power has done.
  23. In the verb "has made us a present", there lies the very thought of grace.
  24. The direct object of the verb is the acc.nt.pl. of the adjective "everything", or "all things" (pa,nta).
  25. "Pertaining to" is the pronoun pro.j (pros) with the accusative, which means "with reference to" something.
  26. "Life" and "godliness" share a single definite article (Granville Sharp construction).
  27. Therefore, there is a certain equality shared by the two concepts.
  28. "Life" refers to our existence as Godís children during our stay on this earth.
  29. God has granted us temporal life and eternal life.
  30. This includes everything required to sustain both spiritual and physical life.
  31. Our allotment of living grace is included in Christís gifts to us.
  32. Protection and preservation are included in this encompassing "all things".
  33. It includes many above-and-beyond blessings of Ph2, which is the reward of faithfulness.
  34. "Godliness" (euvse,beia, eusebia) defines the Ph2 (or after-salvation) goal.
  35. "Godliness" denotes a particular manner of life characterized by respect for the directive will of God.
  36. The term occurs 15X in the N.T.: Acts.3:12; 1Tim.2:2; 3:16; 4:7,8; 6:3,5,6,11; 2Tim.3:5; Ti.1:1; 2Pet.1:3,6,7; 3:11.
  37. The term points to behavior.
  38. "Godliness" is used as a synonym for the maturity adjustment with emphasis on modus operandi and modus vivendi (cf. 1Tim.4:8).
  39. Godliness (adjustment to BD) is the key that unlocks the door to Ph2 and Ph3 blessing.
  40. And epignosis ("true knowledge") is the means by which believers become familiar with "the all things" granted "us" in Christ under the divine decrees.
  41. Epignosis refers in the N.T. to knowledge that is complete and accurate.
  42. This noun is repeated from v.2 (it is the means by which we come into our Ph2 allotment).
  43. The pronoun dia, (dia) with the genitive is correctly rendered "through".
  44. In this instance we have a genitive of means.
  45. Epignosis informs us both as to "the what" as well as "the how" of our Ph2 inheritance.
  46. It also informs as with respect to our Ph3 inheritance.
  47. First comes epignosis, then comes godliness, then comes the "all things" of our Ph2 allotment.
  48. Ignorance and unwillingness to apply short-circuit these blessings.
  49. The source of this knowledge is "the One who called us", which makes epignosis so solid and reliable.
  50. Our call is through epignosis gospel.
  51. The doctrine of calling refers to our initiation into Godís plan.
  52. God is the source of our epignosis.
  53. Peter says we were called "by His own glory and excellence".
  54. The phrase is clearly instrumental: "by His own glory" (means), and not "to His own glory", etc.
  55. Godís glory refers to His divine attributes, which are all operative in our salvation.
  56. The noun translated "excellence" (avreth,) means a good quality of any kind (cf. Phil.4:8; 1Pet.2:9; 2Pet.1:3,5).
  57. Here, it refers to Godís moral goodness and uprightness.
  58. There was no compromise of any of Godís moral attributes when He called us to salvation.
  59. Grace is not a compromise of +R and Justice.
  60. The thrust of what Peter has to say here about Godís gifts to believers is of utmost importance against the occasion for this letter.
  61. How can his readers, who have this knowledge and this call, ever entertain the pseudo gnosis of the antinomian teachers?
  62. This knowledge, and this knowledge alone, when learned and applied, will ensure their successful entrance into the kingdom of God (cf. v.11).

  63. Promises that Deliver Forever (v.4)

    VERSE 4 For by these He has granted to us His precious and magnificent promises (diV w-n dedw,rhtai h`mi/n ta. ti,mia kai. me,gista evpagge,lmata [prep. w/pro./rel.gen.nt.p., hos; "For by these", + pf.dep.ind.3.s., doreomai, bestow upon, + def.art.w/adj.acc.nt.p., time, precious, valuable, + conj. + adj./superlative acc.nt.p., me,gistoj, megtistos is superlative of megas {great}; "magnificent", + acc.nt.p., evpa,ggelma, epaggelma, promise; 2X: 2Pet.1:4; 3:13]), so that by them you may become partakers of the divine nature (i[na dia. tou,twn ge,nhsqe koinwnoi. qei,aj fu,sewj [conj./purpose, hina; "so that", + prep.w/pro./demon.gen.nt.p., houtos, this; "them", or "these", + aor.dep.subj.2.p., ginomai, be; "become", + n.m.p., koinwno,j, koinonos, sharer; "partakers", + adj.gen.f.s., theios, divine, + gen.f.s., fu,sij, phusis, nature]), having escaped the corruption that is in the world by lust (avpofugo,ntej th/j fqora/j evn tw/| ko,smw| evn evpiqumi,a| [aor.act.pt.n.m.p., avpofeu,gw, apopheugo, 3X: 2Pet.1:4; 2:18,20, + def.art.w/gen.f.s., fqora,, phthora, corruption, decay; depravity, + prep.w/def.art.w/loc.m.s., kosmos, world, + prep.w/instr.f.s., epithumia, desire, lust]).

    ANALYSIS: VERSE 4

  64. The sentence beginning in v.2 continues through this verse.
  65. "For by these" refers back to the "glory and excellence" (v.3) of our Lord and Savior.
  66. Source is the point of emphasis: Christís divine power bestows in grace all logistical support, which blessings are understood and given based on epignosis.
  67. Epignosis is derived from GAP, or face-to-face teaching.
  68. It is the divine attributes which have "granted to us" the "promises", along with the divine operating assets for Ph2 (v.3).
  69. Peter repeats the verb dwre,omai (doreomai) from v.3 in its finite form (pf.dep.ind.3.s.).
  70. In v.3 the perfect participle is used of Godís grace in providing "everything" a positive believer needs for "life and godliness".
  71. Here it refers to the Ph 1 promises, designated "His precious and magnificent promises".
  72. This verse is a Ph1 verse and applies equally to all believers.
  73. The promises include everything a believer inherits simply based on saving faith.
  74. The first adjective denotes that which is of value.
  75. The second adjective is the superlative form of me,gaj (megas), which means "the greatest".
  76. It could be rendered extraordinary, outstanding, or simply greatest.
  77. The promises of God fall into the category of the greatest potential assets that can be realized.
  78. There is nothing that even comes close to Godís "promises".
  79. His promises are found throughout the Bible and are a part of the body of epignosis.
  80. There are promises for both time and eternity.
  81. God, who cannot lie, stands behind all His promises.
  82. The onus lies with us as to whether we are going to familiarize ourselves with them and whether we are going to claim the promises.
  83. All the covenants are covenants of promise (Eph.2:12).
  84. They include the Edenic, Noahic, Abrahamic (Rom.4:13; Gal.3:14; Heb.11:9), Mosaic, Davidic (cf. Acts.12:23), and New Covenants to Israel and the Church (Heb.8:6).
  85. The first advent of the HS is a promise fulfilled (Lk.24:49; Acts.2:33).
  86. Israelís deliverance from Egypt was a promise/prophecy fulfilled (Acts.7:17; cp. Josh.21:45).
  87. The provision of Jesus Christ is "according to promise" (Acts.13:23,32,33; 26:6,7).
  88. God promises salvation to those who believe (Gal.3:22; 1Jn.2:25).
  89. Jesus has promised to return for us and clean up the planet (2Pet.3:9).
  90. God has promised us a new creation (2Pet.3:13).
  91. We are to imitate those who went before us and are inheritors of the promises (Heb.6:12).
  92. All of Godís promises are inviolable (2Cor.1:20).
  93. The promises should motivate us to holiness (2Cor.7:1).
  94. There are promises for Ph2 (Heb.11:33).
  95. Phase 3 promises await the resurrection (Heb.11:13).
  96. The conjunction "that" (i[na) introduces a purpose clause which should be rendered in order that.
  97. The phrase "through these" (dia. tou,twn) refers to the promises.
  98. The verb "you may be" is subjunctive (aor.dep.subj.2.p., ginomai) and indicates potential.
  99. The subjunctive mood is the mood of probability.
  100. God has made provision for all men to be saved and inherit the blessings of the promises, but it is up to the individual to believe; hence, the subjunctive.
  101. God granted the promises long before they came to saving faith.
  102. The Ph1 positive volition of the hearers determined whether or not they would become "partakers (or sharers) of the divine nature".
  103. The noun "partakers" has the meaning of those that share something in common with others (cf. Mt.23:30; Lk.5:10; 1Cor.10:20; 2Cor.1:7; 8:23; Philm.1:17; Heb.10:33; 1Pet.5:1).
  104. The cognate noun is koinwni,a (koinonia, fellowship, participation; contribution, 19X: cf. Acts.2:42; Rom.15:26; 1Cor.1:9; 10:16; 2Cor.6:14; 8:4; 9:13; 13:13; Gal.2:9; Phil.1:5; 2:1; 3:10; Philm.1:6; Heb.13:16; 1Jn.1:3,6,7).
  105. The verb is koinwne,w (koinoneo, share, have in common, take part with; 8X: Rom.12:13; 15:27; Gal.6:6; Phil.4:15; 1Tim.5:22; Heb.2:14; 1Pet.4:13; 2Jn.1:11).
  106. Godís promises enable us to become "partakers" of His perfect essence.
  107. Union with Christ is the means whereby believers partake of His immortality (E.L. imputed) and Righteousness (+R imputed).
  108. As a foreigner is naturalized, so we are fully transplanted into Godís kingdom.
  109. We become, at salvation, participants in "the divine nature".
  110. The term "divine nature" occurs here, in v.3, and in Acts.17:29 (there, what the divine nature is not; God is a spirit, not a material being).
  111. The promises related to salvation (Ph1) make it possible for all who believe to become participants in "the divine nature".
  112. Peter is referring to the new birth, as in 1Pet.2:23.
  113. Again, v.4 is strictly a Ph1 verse, and as such applies equally to all believers.
  114. It has as its background positional sanctification.
  115. The action of the aorist participle "having escaped" takes place at the moment of salvation.
  116. This particular verb (avpofeu,gw apopheugo) is featured only in Second Peter (1:4; 2:18,20), while the cognate feu,gw (pheugo, flee) occurs 29 times.
  117. Each time in Second Peter it refers to the salvation adjustment.
  118. Phase 1 salvation is viewed in Scripture as a deliverance from a domain destined for eternal wrath into a domain of life and protection (cp. Eph.2:3; Col.1:13; Heb.6:18; Rom.5:18; 8:1; Jn.3:18; 1Jn.5:4).
  119. "Having escaped" is realized via positional sanctification, or union with Christ.
  120. The noun "corruption" (fqora,, phthora, that which is perishable) refers here to the moral and spiritual depravity that characterizes the cosmos under the Adamic curse of spiritual death.
  121. The noun occurs 9X in the N.T.: Rom.8:21; 1Cor.15:42,50; Gal.6:8; Col.2:22; 2Pet.1:4; 2:12,19.
  122. This "corruption" is universal and abides under the wrath of God (cp. Jn.3:36).
  123. Or as it is stated in 1Jn.5:19: "We know that we are of God, and the whole world lies in the power of the evil one".
  124. The noun "corruption" is translated "perishable" (NAS) in 1Cor.15:42,50 and "corruption" in the NKJ.
  125. The idea is something that will perish based on the nature of things (cp. Col.2:22).
  126. Fallen mankind will perish apart from the birth produced by the imperishable WOG (1Pet.1:23).
  127. The perishable aspect of our humanity that remains after salvation - the human body - will be made imperishable at the resurrection (1Cor.15:52).
  128. While still living in the cosmos, we are not of it; it only appears that we share the fate of other people (cf. Jn.15:19; 17:14,16).
  129. We are a new species of humanity (Peterís "chosen race", 1Pet.2:9; Paulís "one new man", Eph.2:15).
  130. The noun "corruption" has the extended meaning of ruin, or destruction, as that which is perishable or corruptible will, in the course of time, come under ruination.
  131. Individuals who have not "escaped" (unbelievers) will perish forever in the lake of fire.
  132. Spiritual death makes man a target for the wrath of God, and his mortality makes it certain that he will perish apart from saving grace.
  133. The universal corruption that characterizes the devilís world is spawned "by lust".
  134. It was the womanís lust for the wrong kind of knowledge that caused her to sin, and it was the manís lust for the woman that drew him into disobedience (Gen.3).
  135. All the descendants of Adam are facsimiles of their ancestor based on AOS and STA-sponsored lust.
  136. We have escaped the punitive aspect based on positional sanctification.
  137. A distinction must be maintained between what we are positionally and what we are experientially.
  138. Positionally we have died to the cosmos, but experientially we may still adhere to its anti-epignosis precepts (cf. Col.2:20).
  139. After salvation we still fall prey to the lust pattern (Rom.7:5 cp. 8ff; Gal.5:17; Jam.4:2; 1Pet.2:11).
  140. The "big escape" took place when we first believed in Christ.
  141. There is an added incentive to overruling the IOSN with its lust pattern so as to make and hold the maturity adjustment.
  142. That is not the subject of v.4, but is the topic of vv.5-11 (espec. v.11).
  143. The experiential issue comes into view in vv.5-11.
  144. Epignosis gospel brings us out from under the "corruption that is in the world through lust", and epignosis is what enables us to overcome loss and shame at the Bema Seat.

  145. Seven Qualities for Ph2 Success (vv.5-7)

    Diligence, Moral Excellence, and Knowledge (v.5)

    VERSE 5 Now for this very reason also (de. auvto. tou/to kai. [conj., now, + pro.acc.nt.s., autos, very; "very reason", + pro./demon.acc.nt.s., houtos, this; auto touto occurs 9X in the N.T: Rom.9:17; 13:6; 2Cor.5:5; 7:11; Gal.2:10; Eph.6:22; Phil.1:6; Col.4:8; 2Pet.1:5, where it is translated "very purpose", or "very thing", + conj./adjun., also]), applying all diligence (pareisene,gkantejpa/san spoudh.n [aor.act.pt.{imper.}n.m.p., pareisfe,rw, pareisphero, exert; 1X, + adj.acc.f.s., pas, all, + acc.f.s., spoudh,, spoude, diligence]), in your faith supply moral excellence (evn th/| pi,stei u`mw/n evpicorhgh,sate th.n avreth,n [prep.w/def.art.w/loc.f.s., pistis, faith, + pro.gen.p., su, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., avreth,, arete, moral excellence; 5X: Phil.4:8; 1Pet.2:9; 2Pet.1:3,5]), and in your moral excellence, knowledge (evn de. th/| avreth/| th.n gnw/sin [conj., de, "and", + prep.w/def.art.w/loc.f.s., arete, moral excellence, + def.art.w/acc.f.s, gnosis, knowledge]);
     
     

    ANALYSIS: VERSE 5

  146. "Now for this very reason also" looks backward to the wonderful fact of our positional deliverance from the "corruption that is in the world by lust".
  147. The subject matter shifts from our positional participation in the divine nature to the challenge to exploit our strategic advantages.
  148. Verse 4 deals with positional truth, while verses 5 and following deal with experiential truth.
  149. "Now" is the weak adversative conjunction de, which here marks the fact that what follows is different from what precedes.
  150. The phrase "for this very reason" (auvto. tou/to, auto touto) constitutes two accusative neuter singular pronouns (personal followed by a demonstrative).
  151. This construction occurs 9X in the N.T.: Rom.9:17; 13:6; 2Cor.5:5; 7:11; Gal.2:10; Eph.6:22; Phil.1:6; Col.4:8; 2Pet.1:5.
  152. The first pronoun (auvto,j, "this") stands in the place of an antecedent (anaphoric).
  153. The antecedent is our positional participation in the divine nature.
  154. The second pronoun (ou-toj) is a pointer, singling out an object in a special way; hence, "very reason".
  155. The conjunction "also" (kai,) is adjunctive.
  156. So in addition to having made the salvation adjustment, they are to devote themselves to Ph2 excellence by cultivating the seven virtues of vv.5-7.
  157. The verb "applying" (aor.act.pt./imper.2.p., pareisfe,rw, pareisphero, exert, do oneís best, try very hard, with the adj.acc.f.s., pa/j) occurs only here and is a triple compound of "alongside" (para), "toward" (eis), and "carry/bear" (phero).
  158. The word "applying" calls for a serious effort to accomplish an objective.
  159. The objective is the cultivation of the seven virtues which follow: "moral excellence", "knowledge", "self-control", "perseverance", "godliness", "brotherly kindness", and "love".
  160. The words "exerting (or Ďapplyingí) all diligence" stand at the head of the list of seven and set forth what our approach to the incorporation of these virtues should be.
  161. The first of the seven virtues is not diligence (spoudh,, spoude), nor "faith", but "moral excellence".
  162. Diligence, when used of travel, means "with haste" (Lk.1:39).
  163. Other references include: Rom.12:8,11; 2Cor.7:11; 8:7,8,16; Heb.6:11; Jude.1:3.
  164. This virtue is akin to zeal (Rom.12:11); zeal is the mental attitude, while diligence is the manner in which a duty is carried out.
  165. Its motto could well be Col.3:23: "Whatever you do, do your work heartily, as for the Lord rather than for men".
  166. We are to engage in the Lordís work with "all diligence".
  167. God wants us to give our best in whatever we do in His name (Rom.12:8).
  168. This includes the grand objective of appearing blameless at the Bema (Heb.6:11).
  169. Diligence with respect to the Lordís work is something that is in the heart of those who are fully committed to him (2Cor.8:6).
  170. Another way of expressing this virtue is eagerness in the doing of the task at hand.
  171. Diligence is characterized by steady, earnest, and energetic application.
  172. Here "exerting all diligence" is directed toward the seven virtues that follow the words "in your faith supplyÖ".
  173. Each of the seven virtues is preceded by the definite article.
  174. "Faith" is like the Greek chorus which needs to be underwritten in order to be a success.
  175. "Faith" is what we refer to as "positive volition", or faithís content, BD.
  176. Do we view "faith" here as faith in the active sense, or as faithís content?
  177. It could be argued either way, but I prefer the latter.
  178. The seven virtues adorn the doctrine present (cf. Ti.2:10).
  179. The verb "supply" (aor.imper.2.p., evpicorhge,w, epichoregeo) was used of someone who underwrote a chorale production (5X: 2Cor.9:10; Gal.3:5; Col.2:19; 2Pet.1:5,11).
  180. "Faith" is the spark that ignites the engine that drives the seven components.
  181. For Ph2 faith to be dynamic, it must be accompanied by action.
  182. This is akin to Jamesí "Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead, being by itself" (Jam.2:17), or "I will show you my faith by my works" (Jam.2:18b).
  183. "Faith" (pos.vol., or resident BD) without works is useless.
  184. "Faith" is assumed, as Peter is writing to positive believers.
  185. This finite imperative (aorist) goes with the list of seven virtues even though the verb is only used once; it is implied to the end of the paragraph.
  186. Faith should be underwritten by the list of seven.
  187. The first virtue is "moral excellence".
  188. The noun aveth, (def.art.w/loc.fem.s., arete) occurs only 4X: Phil.4:8; 1Pet.2:9; 2Pet.1:3,5.
  189. It is used of moral excellence/virtue/uprightness and is ascribed to people in Phil.4:8 and 2Pet.1:5.
  190. It is used of God in 2Pet.1:3 and of His works and ways in 1Pet.2:9.
  191. "Moral excellence" is absolutely necessary, as we are Godís people and we are to be holy, as He is holy.
  192. "Moral excellence" is acquired by adopting the norms and standards of the WOG that address all aspects of our conduct.
  193. The absence of this virtue makes our Christianity a mockery.
  194. The second virtue is "knowledge".
  195. The noun used is gnosis.
  196. Gnosis is acquired via GAP.
  197. The more information acquired from the Bible, the better.
  198. Ignorance of the WOG makes one susceptible to false concepts.

  199. Self-control, Perseverance, and Godliness (v.6)

    VERSE 6 and in your knowledge, self-control (evn de. th/| gnw,sei th.n evgkra,teian [conj., de, and, + prep.w/def.art.w/loc.f.s., gnosis, knowledge, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., evgkra,teia, egkrateia, self-control; 4X: Acts.24:25; Gal.5:23; 2Pet.1:6]), and in your self-control, perseverance ([evn de. th/| evgkratei,a| th.n u`pomonh,n [conj., de, and, + prep.w/def.art.w/loc.f.s., egkrateia, self-control, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., uvpomohh,, hupomone, patience]), and in your perseverance, godliness (evn de. th/| u`pomonh/| th.n euvse,beian [conj. + prep.def.art.w/loc.f.s., hupomone, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., euvse,beia, eusebeia, godliness, piety, devotion]);
     
     

    ANALYSIS: VERSE 6

  200. "Self-control" is the third virtue.
  201. The noun occurs 3X in the N.T.: Acts.24:25; Gal.5:23; 2Pet.1:6.
  202. This is the very self-control the antinomians lack.
  203. They give free reign to their lusts.
  204. Because of knowledge we have the power to keep our STAs in check.
  205. Next (fourth ) comes "perseverance" (uvpomonh,, hupomone).
  206. The noun means, literally, "remaining under".
  207. It is used of patience with respect to circumstances (things).
  208. We need endurance to complete our course (Heb.12:1; 10:36).
  209. The fifth item is "godliness" (euvse,beia, eusebeia) and is used of behavior directed devotedly towards God.
  210. This noun occurs 15X: Acts.3:12; 1Tim.2:2; 3:16; 4:7,8; 6:3,5,6,11; 2Tim.3:5; Ti.1:2; 2Pet.1:3,6,7; 3:11).
  211. The noun incorporates attitude, conduct, and worship.
  212. Godliness enables them to be true to God and resist the lawlessness of the false teachers.

  213. Brotherly Kindness and Love (v.7)

    VERSE 7 and in your godliness, brotherly kindness (evn de. th/| euvsebei,a| th.n filadelfi,an [conj., de, and, + prep.w/def.art.w/loc.f.s., eusebeia, godliness, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., philadelphia, brotherly love; 6X: Rom.12:10; 1Thess.4:9; Heb.13:1; 1Pet.1:22; 2Pet.1:7]), and in your brotherly kindness, love (evn de. th/| filadelfi,a| th.n avga,phn [conj. + prep.w/def.art.w/loc.f.s., philadelphia, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., agape, love]).

    ANALYSIS: VERSE 7

  214. The sixth item is "brotherly kindness" (filadelfi,a, philadelphia).
  215. It occurs 6X: Rom.12:10; 1Thess.4:9; Heb.13:1; 1Pet.1:22; 2Pet.1:7.
  216. The godly must cling together like so many brothers in a family that is under assault.
  217. It is important that we exude the friendliness of those who share a common bond.
  218. The seventh item, "love" (avgaph,), is broader than "fraternal friendliness".
  219. "Love" includes the love of God, one another, and even enemies.
  220. The importance of the cultivation of these qualities is seen in the three verses that follow.

  221. Guarantee of Productivity (v.8)

    VERSE 8 For if these qualities are yours and are increasing (tau/ta ga.r u`mi/n u`pa,rconta kai. pleona,zonta [conj., gar, for, + pro./demons.n.nt.p., houtos, this, + pro.dat.p., su, + pres.act.pt.n.nt.p., uvpa,rcw, huparcho, be at oneís disposal; "are", + conj. + pres.act.pt.n.nt.p., pleona,zw, pleonazo, increase]), they render you neither useless nor unfruitful in the true knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ (kaqi,sthsin ouvk avrgou.j ouvde. avka,rpouj eivj th.n evpi,gnwsin tou/ kuri,ou h`mw/n VIhsou/ Cristou/ [pres.act.ind.3.s., kaqi,sthmi, kathistemi, appoint, put in charge, appoint; "render", + neg., ouk; "neither", + adj.acc.m.p., avrgo,j, argos, idle, unemployed; "useless", + conj./coord., oude, used to reinforce a neg., + adj.acc.f.p., a;karpoj, akarpos, unfruitful, + prep.w/def.art.w/acc.f.s., epignosis, full knowledge, + pro.gen.p., ego, + gen.m.s., Iesous Christos]).

    ANALYSIS: VERSE 8

  222. "For if these qualities" refers to virtues with which we are to compliment our "faith".
  223. The words "are yours" consist of a verb (pres.act.pt.n.nt.p., u`pa,rcw, huparcho, be present; be at oneís disposal) and a pronoun (dat.p., su).
  224. The participle "are increasing" (pres.act.pt.n.nt.p., pleona,zw, pleonazo, increase) indicates continued spiritual growth, as evidenced by improvement in the virtues.
  225. The virtues do not come about in a day, and "all diligence" will produce a steady increase in these virtues.
  226. The verb "they render" (pres.act.ind.3.d., kaqi,sthmi, kathistemi, put in charge) occurs with the negative.
  227. The verb occurs with two negative adjectives.
  228. The negative adjectives, "useless" (avrgo,j, argos, unemployed; lazy; useless) and "unfruitful" (a]karpoj, akarpos, unfruitful, barren), declare in a negative and mild way what is intended to be positive and strong.
  229. The cultivation of the virtues of a dynamic faith result in much divine good production.
  230. Epignosis is again brought forward to show the basis for divine good.
  231. Jesus Christ is the source of epignosis (gen. of source).
  232. Believers should be increasing in divine good and epignosis (Col.1:10).
Blindness Associated with Neglect (v.9)

VERSE 9 For he who lacks these qualities (w-| ga.r mh. pa,restin tau/ta [conj., gar, for, + pro./rel.dat.m.s., hos; "he", + neg., me, + pres.act.ind.3.s., pa,reimi, pareimi, be present; w/neg., "lacks", + pro./demon.n.nt.p., houtos, this; "these"]) is blind or short-sighted (tuflo,j evstin muwpa,zwn [pres.act.ind.3.s, eimi, + adj.n.m.s., tuphlos, blind, + pres.act.pt.n.m.s., muwpa,zw, muopazo, nearsighted; 1X]), having forgotten his purification from his former sins (labw.n lh,qhn tou/ kaqarismou/ tw/n pa,lai auvtou/ a`martiw/n [aor.act.pt.n.m.s., lambano, receive; "having", + acc.f.s., lh,qh, lethe, forgetfulness; literally, "having received forgetfulness", + def.art.w/gen.m.s., kaqarismo,j, katharismos, cleansing, purification, + def.art. w/adverbial adjective, palai, formerly; "former", + pro.gen.m.s., autos, "his", + abl.f.p., hamaria, sin]).

ANALYSIS: VERSE 9

  1. Having stated in a positive way (using negative terms) what the seven virtues of faith will do for believers, Peter introduces here the consequences of the rejection of the epignosis that makes these virtues operational in the CWL.
  2. Another "for" states the case for adhering to epignosis doctrine (ga,r; cp. v.8) using a negative example.
  3. Peter drops the personal "you" and switches to the third person.
  4. This probably hints at the false teachers who at some stage in their spiritual enlightenment rejected epignosis truth.
  5. The construction "he who lacks these things" has the negative mh, with the relative pronoun ("who") with the pres.act.ind.3.s., pa,reimi (pareimi, to be present; have [not have, or lack]).
  6. "These things" refers to the virtues that are the outgrowth of epignosis.
  7. Peter describes such a man as being "blind" (first adjective, tuflo,j), but more specifically a particular kind of blindness called "short-sightedness" (hapax, vb., muwpa,zw, muopazo, be shortsighted, pres.act.pt.n.m.s.).
  8. The near-sighted, or shortsighted, person has trouble seeing for distance.
  9. Defective vision of distant objects is called myopia.
  10. Here we have spiritual myopia, but what is it?
  11. It refers to someone who has known epignosis doctrine, but having walked away from it only has a very imperfect image of it before the eyes of the soul.
  12. The present indicative of "is" (eimi), as in "is blind or short-sighted", indicates such a personís continuous myopic condition.
  13. The aorist participle, translated "having forgotten", is less exact than the literal "having received forgetfulness".
  14. The Greek has the aorist active participle (n.m.s.) of lambano (to receive) plus the noun lh,qh (lethe, forgetfulness n.m.s.).
  15. Rejection of epignosis has resulted in a state of "forgetfulness", which is akin to physical myopia.
  16. In fact, failure to prepare ahead is sometimes called myopic.
  17. Spiritual myopia and amnesia progress.
  18. In the extreme stages he is like a man who is virtually (or legally) blind, or like someone who has lost their capacity at recall.
  19. In the advanced stages, the reversionist is described as "having forgotten his purification from his former sins".
  20. This is truly a sad state of affairs: to be a believer and not to remember the most important event in oneís existence.
  21. The phrase "purification/cleansing from his former sins" refers to the forgiveness associated with the salvation adjustment (cp. Acts.10:43).
  22. This is the only place where we have this exact expression, "former sins".
  23. The language of cleansing and forgiveness is often interchangeable.
  24. We can speak of a person being forgiven, or cleansed (cf. 1Jn.1:9).
  25. The hypothetical person is clearly a believer.
  26. His advanced myopia and amnesia did not happen overnight.
  27. But in the advanced stages, the person would be taken for an unbeliever!
  28. Those who abandon epignosis may end up not even knowing who they are.
  29. It depends upon the nature of their repudiation of the truth.
  30. A person may arrive at this point rather rapidly, depending on the circumstances of their repudiation of epignosis.
  31. Believers who repudiate the core truths of the gospel are definitely candidates for this extreme kind of reversionism.
  32. The point of Peterís negative example is that when there is a repudiation of epignosis doctrine, there is a corresponding erosion of the "things" specified in vv.5-7.
  33. The seven virtues associated with diligence and faith are key to a healthy and robust Ph2.
Safeguard against Stumbling (v.10)

VERSE 10 Therefore, brethren, be all the more diligent (dio. ma/llon( avdelfoi,spouda,sate [conj., therefore, + adv./comparative; "be all the more", + voc.m.p., adelphos, + aor.act.imper.2.p., spouda,zw, spoudazo, spare no effort, be diligent]) to make certain about His calling and choosing you (poiei/sqaibebai,an u`mw/n th.n klh/sin kai. evklogh.n [pres.mid.infin., poieo, do, make; "to make", + adj.acc.f.s., be,baioj, bebaios, reliable; certain; "certain", + pro.gen.p., su, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., klh/sij, klesis, calling, + acc.f.s., evklogh, ekloge, election]); for as long as you practice these things, you will never stumble (ga.r poiou/ntej tau/ta ouv mh. ptai,shte, pote [conj., for, + pres.act.pt.n.m.p., poieo, do; "practice", + pro./demonstr.acc.nt.p., houtos, this; "these things", + double negative, ou me, + adv./indef., pote, at any time, + aor.act.subj.2.p., ptai,w, ptaio, stumble]);

ANALYSIS: VERSE 10

  1. The conjunction "Therefore/For this reason/Because of this" (dio.) means in light of the promise (v.8) and warning (v.9) of vv.8,9.
  2. This is the only place in the two letters that Peter addresses the readers as "brethren" (cp. 1Pet.5:12; 2Pet.3:15).
  3. This vocative of address strengthens the appeal that follows.
  4. Next follows the second call to diligence.
  5. The aorist imperative of the verb spouda,zw (to do oneís best, work hard) echoes the noun spoudh, in v.5.
  6. The adverb "all the more" (ma/llon) echoes the "all" of v.5.
  7. Here, as there, it is very important that believers attain to the directive that follows in the two contexts.
  8. The diligence (maximum effort) called for here is followed by the present middle infinitive "to make" (poie,w), along with the adjective accusative feminine singular "certain" (be,baioj, verified, confirmed; "make certain", with the infinitive).
  9. The spiritual well-being and safety of believers is based on whether or not they remain committed to the doctrines of calling and election.
  10. The goal that Peter calls for here is subjective and immediate.
  11. Its scope is Ph2.
  12. This is something that the believer is to do in time that will protect him from major stumbling (a spiritual crash).
  13. Peter directs their attention to the doctrines of "calling and choosing" (th.n klh/sin kai. evklogh.n, ten klesin kai eklogen).
  14. The way we "make certain" of our place in the POG is to be engaged aggressively in the things of vv.5-7, the evidences of faith.
  15. This includes study of the doctrine of calling and election, as one of the virtues is "knowledge".
  16. The first part of the verse (10a) is explained by the second part (10b).
  17. The explanatory conjunction "for" gives us the key to how we "make certain about" our "calling and election".
  18. Applying the exhortation of vv.5-7 is the means to the first part of the verse, or the imperative, "be all the more diligent to make certain about His calling and choosing you".
  19. The demonstrative pronoun tau/ta (acc.nt.p.), translated "these things", has as its antecedent the seven virtues of vv.5-7.
  20. Or put another way, the seven-fold spiritual evidences of faith.
  21. The present participle, translated "as long as you practice" (the second use of poie,w), refers to the cultivation of the seven virtues that are the evidence of faith (positive volition).
  22. Those who engage in the cultivation of the seven virtues are those who have maximum confidence with respect to "calling and election".
  23. Notice that there is one definite article (th.n) serving both of the nouns "calling and choosing".
  24. The equivalency is that all who are elected are called (Rom.8:28-30).
  25. But not all who are called are elected (Mt.22:14)!
  26. Peter places calling before election, even though election precedes calling sequentially (in Rom.8:28ff Paul presents these acts of God as our time-bound minds see them in their succession within God Himself).
  27. Calling is a temporal thing, while election is an eternal thing.
  28. In eternity past God elected, or predestinated, prospective believers to salvation.
  29. This action, stretching from eternity past, is based on foreknowledge.
  30. Both Peter and Paul make this clear (1Pet.1:1,2; Rom.8:29).
  31. Calling has Ph1, Ph2, and Ph3 aspects.
  32. The Ph1 call is to eternal life (cp. 1Tim.6:12; Heb.9:15; 1Cor.1:2,26; 2Tim.1:9; 2Thess.1:11; Eph.4:1; Rom.9:24; 1Cor.7:15,17,18,20,21,22,24; Gal.1:6; 1Pet.2:9; 2Pet.1:3).
  33. "The called" is actually a title for believers (Rom.1:6; 1Cor.1:24; Jude.1:1).
  34. The Ph2 aspect is seen in: Gal.5:13; Col.3:15; 1Thess.4:7; 1Pet.1:15; 2:21.
  35. The Ph3 aspect is seen in the expression "the hope of His calling" (Eph.1:18; 4:4; 2Thess.2:14; 1Pet.3:9; 5:10).
  36. Calling and election occur together in Rom.9:11.
  37. Believers are told to understand the doctrine of election in 1Thess.1:4.
  38. So here believers are told how to make absolutely certain of their calling and election.
  39. Learning and application build confidence with respect to our standing in the POG.
  40. This same line of reasoning is found in 1Jn.2:5 (cp. 3:14; 4:17).
  41. Confidence comes with persistence in the intake and application of BD.
  42. Finally, what are we to make of Peterís statement that those who "do these thing will never stumble"?
  43. The double negative, with the aorist subjunctive of the verb ptai,w (stumble), constitutes a strong or emphatic negative (common).
  44. This is the strongest way to negate something in the Greek.
  45. ouv mh., with the subjunctive, denies a potentiality.
  46. The construction rules out even the idea of a possibility.
  47. It is the most decisive way of negating something in the future (see Mt.24:35; Jn.10:28; 11:26; Rom.4:8; Heb.13:5).
  48. Since all personal sinning is stumbling, Peter could not possibly be referring to every-day sinning, as the conditional promise would require sinless perfection.
  49. We as believers sin every day (cf. Jam.3:2).
  50. The WOG envisages two kinds of stumbling.
  51. A case in point is found in Rom.11:11.
  52. Israel has stumbled, but not in a fatal sense, as the Jewish race will survive as the chosen people under God.
  53. Here, the stumbling is akin to reversionism.
  54. Those who diligently pursue the seven virtues will never stumble, but those who are careless and not attentive will stumble.
  55. The Christian sins daily even when his calling and election are sure to him.
  56. Such sins are not the fatal (or potentially fatal) stumbling of which Peter speaks.
  57. When believers hold fast the "former purification" (v.9), this cleansing is renewed day by day.
  58. There is an implied warning: those who fail to do these things will, indeed, stumble decidedly (aorist).
  59. Many who so stumble never recover, but some do come around, as Scripture and experience tell us.
  60. There are those who believe for a time and then fall away.
  61. We should not conclude that those who fall away were never a part of the elect.
The Reason to do so (v.11)

VERSE 11 for in this way (ou[twj ga.r [conj., for, + adv., houtos, in this manner]) the entrance into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (h` ei;sodoj eivj th.n aivw,nion basilei,an tou/ kuri,ou h`mw/n kai. swth/roj VIhsou/ Cristou/ [def.art.w/n.f.s., eisodos, entrance, reception; 5X: Acts.13:24; 1Thess.1:9; 2:1; Heb.10:19; 2Pet.1:11, + prep. w/def.art.w/adj.acc.f.s., aionios, eternal, + acc.f.s., basileia, kingdom, + pro.gen.p., ego; "our", + def.art.w/gen.m.s., kurios, + conj. + gen.m.s., soter, savior, + gen.m.s., Iesous Christos]) will be abundantly supplied to you (plousi,wj evpicorhghqh,setai u`mi/n [adv., plousios, in full measure; "abundantly", + fut.pass.ind.3.s., evpicorhge,w, epichoregeo, supply; 5X: 2Cor.9:10; Gal.3:5; Col.2:19; 2Pet.1:5,11;+ pro.dat.p., su]).

ANALYSIS: VERSE 11

  1. "For in this way" (ou[twj ga.r) introduces the ultimate reason to cultivate the seven virtues.
  2. Peter has been building up to this climactic conclusion of the section beginning with v.5.
  3. The importance of the seven evidences (virtues) of faith is seen in four related, but separate, statements (vv.8-11).
  4. The first verse (v.8) deals with productivity; the second (v.9) is a warning of what happens where there is a wholesale repudiation of the virtues; the third (v.10) is a promise based on an imperative that fatal stumbling will not overtake those who are diligent; and the fourth (v.11) sums up and brings to a conclusion a promise of SG3 vindication.
  5. "The entrance" (h` ei;sodoj, he eisodos, entrance, access, reception; 5X: Acts.13:24; 1Thess.1:9; 2:1; Heb.10:19; 2Pet.1:11), as Peter describes it, "into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" (Granville Sharp construction again), can refer only to the fact of our ultimate sanctification, which happens at the Rapture.
  6. At the Rapture, all Church Age believers will make "the entrance" into the physical kingdom promised before the foundation of the world (1Thess.2:12; 2Thess.1:5; 2Tim.4:18; Jam.2:5; cp. Mt.25:34).
  7. As of the salvation adjustment, we are a part of the unseen but real kingdom of God (Col.1:13).
  8. The visible kingdom will replace the kingdoms of man and will last forever and ever in two distinct stages (Dan.7:14,18,22,27; Mt.6:10).
  9. All the saints from all the dispensations will participate in the triumphant and eternal kingdom of God.
  10. So the positional sanctification of v.4 becomes an experiential reality at the Rapture.
  11. For those who are diligent in their pursuit of the seven virtues to the end, their reception "will be abundantly supplied".
  12. The verb "will be supplied" is the fut.act.ind.3.s. of the same verb we saw in v.5 (aor.act.imper.2.p., the verb evpicorhge,w, epichoregeo, supply, provide).
  13. It occurs 5X: 2Cor.9:10; Gal.3:5; Col.2:19; 2Pet.1:5,11).
  14. It was used of providing a Greek chorus with the material wherewithal to practice and perform.
  15. Those who, as it were, underwrite their faith with the seven virtues (make the necessary sacrifices), will themselves be "supplied" with an extraordinary "entrance" into Ph3.
  16. The adverb "abundantly" (plousi,wj, plousios, richly, lavishly, abundantly) means lavishly.
  17. It is a term related to the very rich.
  18. It occurs 4X: Col.3:16; 1Tim.6:18; Ti.3:6; 2Pet.1:11.
  19. The verb ploute,w (plouteo) means "to be" or "become rich".
  20. Another verb plouti,zw (ploutizo) means "to make rich" (3X: 1Cor.1:5; 2Cor.6:10; 9:11).
  21. The adjective plou,sioj (plousios) means "rich".
  22. So here we have a term of affluence pointing to the "above and beyond" blessings associated with ultimate sanctification.
  23. The "kingdom of Jesus Christ" is a kingdom of extreme spiritual and material prosperity.
  24. The coming kingdom reeks of material wealth.
  25. But not at the sacrifice of principle or righteousness.
  26. Verses in the epistles where kingdom is used of a present spiritual reality: Rom.14:17; 1Cor.4:20; Col.1:13; 4:11; Heb.12:28.
  27. Verses where the term is used of a future happening: 1Cor.6:9,10; 15:24,50; Gal.5:21; Eph.5:5; 1Thess.2:12; 2Thess.1:5; 2Tim.4:1,18; Heb.1:8; Jam.2:5; 2Pet.1:11.
  28. This same pattern occurs in the Gospels: Mt.3:2; cp. Mt.5:10 or Mt.13:11,19,24,31,33,38,41, 43-45,47,52; cp. Mt.16:28 or Mt.18:4; cp. Mt.20:21.
  29. Verse 11 is yet another verse dealing with the doctrine of SG3 and the distinctions that will be evident at the Rapture.
Peterís Motivation for Writing (vv.12-15)

Importance of Repetition (v.12)

VERSE 12 Therefore (Dio. [conj./inferential, for this reason, therefore]), I will always be ready to remind you of these things (mellh,sw avei. u`ma/j u`pomimnh,|skein peri. tou,twn [fut.act.ind.1.p.s., me,llw, mello, be about to do something, w/pres.infin. + adv., aei, always, + pres.act.infin., uvppomimnh,skw, hupomimnesko, remind, w/acc. of pers. + pro.acc.p., su, + prep. w/pro./demon.gen.nt.p., houtos; "of these things"]), even though you already know them (kai,per eivdo,taj [conj./subord., even though, + pf.act.pt.acc.m.p.,oi=da, oida, know]), and have been established (kai. evsthrigme,nouj [conj. + pf.pass.pt.acc.m.p., sthri,zw, sterizo, establish; cp. Jam.5:8; 1Pet.5:10]) in the truth which is present with you (evn th/| parou,sh| avlhqei,a| [prep.w/def.art.w/pres.act.pt.dat.f.s., pa,reimi, pareimi, be present, + dat.f.s., aletheia, truth]).

ANALYSIS: VERSE 12

  1. "Therefore" is the inferential conjunction dio,, meaning "for this reason".
  2. It looks backward to v.11 and the potential of a superabundant entrance into Ph3 ("eternal kingdom of Jesus Christ") based on application of epignosis under the 7 virtues of vv.5-7.
  3. For Peter, the revelation of that future kingdom and glory is very special for those who persevere in the face of hostility and contradiction (cp. 1Pet.1:6,7).
  4. So again, for the reason specified in v.11, Peter goes to special links to be sure that those under his charge are ready to meet the challenges to their Ph2 momentum.
  5. The words "I will always be ready" show Peterís commitment to his calling to "study and teach".
  6. He took seriously Jesusí final words to him in Jn.21 ("If you love me, feed my sheep").
  7. Towards the end of his life the Asian Christians fell to his charge.
  8. Peterís responsibility "to remind" them of the "things" of vv.5-7 ended with his promotion into Ph3.
  9. "These things" (v.12) refers to the virtues of vv.5-7 (cp. vv.8,9,10,15 where the demonstrative pronoun ou-toj occurs in reference to the 7 virtues).
  10. Repetition is an essential part of communication in any discipline.
  11. Repetition is especially important where the hearers are well informed.
  12. Hence the words, "even though you already know them".
  13. Peter is aware of the fact that these believers have been well versed in the doctrines of the CWL.
  14. This cannot be said of just anybody making a claim to faith in Christ.
  15. The reality of Ph1 and Ph2 truth resides in the souls of the readers as a result of an extended period of indoctrination under faithful shepherds (cp. 1Pet.5:10 where the verb occurs as a future indicative).
  16. Hence, the perfect passive participle "have been established".
  17. The verb sthri,zw means to make solid and therefore, by implication, immovable (cp. Lk.16:26).
  18. It is used in connection with rigorous teaching of BD (1Thess.3:2; Rom.16:25).
  19. They were firmly settled/established in their understanding of the POG.
  20. Interestingly, this very word occurs in Lk.22:31,32 where Jesus prophesied with respect to Peter that after he was squared away he would in turn "strengthen your brethren".
  21. These words were in connection with Peterís impending denial of Christ.
  22. Peterís fall was the direct result of not being diligent in the intake of BD.
  23. Only after he took the whole of truth seriously could he really strengthen positive volition.
  24. The final words of the verse are "which is present with you".
  25. This expression, along with the references to doctrine in 2Pet.1:1 and 2:2, points to the notion that there was (and is) a clearly defined and authoritative body of truth that was being communicated throughout the world (cf. Jude.3).
  26. These believers needed to have a firm grasp on the issues pertaining to the CWL as they would face the onslaught of many false teachers in the years to follow.
  27. The antidote to this growing threat is soundness in the faith.
Peterís Urgency (vv.13,14)

VERSE 13 And I consider it right (di,kaion de. h`gou/mai [adj.acc.nt.s., dikaios, righteous; morally and ethically right; "right", + conj., and, but, now, + pres.dep.ind.1p.s., h`ge,omai, hegomai, consider]), as long as I am in this earthly dwelling (evfV o[son eivmi. evn tou,tw| tw/| skhnw,mati [prep.w/adj./correl. of time; as long as, + pres.act.ind.1.p.s., eimi, + prep.w/pro./demon.loc.nt.s., houtos, "in this", + def.art.w/loc.nt.s., skhnw,mati, skenomati, temporary abode versus a fixed one; 3X: Acts.7:46; 2Pet.1:13,14; but compare the verb skhno,w, dwell temporarily; 5X: Jn.1:14; Rev.7:15; 12:12; 13:6; 21:3]), to stir you up by way of reminder (diegei,rein u`ma/j evn u`pomnh,sei [pres.act.infin., diegei,rw, diegeiro, stir up, awaken {from sleep} + pro.acc.p. + prep.w/instr.f.s., uvpo,mnhsij, hupomnesis, reminder; cp. vb. in v.12]),

VERSE 14 knowing that the laying aside of my earthly dwelling is imminent (eivdw.j o[ti tacinh, evstin h` avpo,qesij tou/ skhnw,mato,j mou [pf.act.pt.n.m.s., oida, know, + conj./declar., hoti, + def.art.w/n.f.s., apothesis, removal; "laying aside", + def.art.w/gen.nt.s., skenoma, "earthly dwelling", + pro.gen.s., ego, + pres.act.ind.3s., eimi, + adj.n.f.s., tachinos, as indicating what is near or impending; "imminent"; 2X: 2Pet.2:1]) , as also our Lord Jesus Christ has made clear to me (kaqw.j kai. o` ku,rioj h`mw/n VIhsou/j Cristo.j evdh,lwse,n moi [adv./compar. + conj./adjunc., also, + pro.gen.p., ego; "our", + def.art.w/n.m.s., kurios, + Iesous, + Christos, + aor.act.ind.3.s., dhlo,w, deloo, make clear, + dat.s., ego, "to me"]).

ANALYSIS: VERSES 13,14

  1. There is another consideration for urgency toward the readers.
  2. That consideration has to do with Peterís understanding of a prophecy that concerned him personally.
  3. The prophecy had to do with Peterís death that was about to take place.
  4. So his observations in the verses that follow are framed.
  5. The phrase "I consider it right", or "I think it right", concerns his personal opinion (cp. 1Pet.5:12).
  6. It was Peterís considerate opinion that "as long as" he was "in this earthly dwelling" he had an obligation "to stir up" believers under his charge with respect to the CWL.
  7. Coupled with the ever-present necessity upon him (v.12) along with his impending departure from Ph2, Peter is all the more stirred up with respect to his gift to communicate the realities of BD.
  8. The twilight of this career did not diminish in his mind and heart the necessity of bringing positive volition to its most aware and alert state.
  9. Peter was imbued with the spirit of prophecy at a variety of points that induced him to write as he did.
  10. He was aware of the impending assault of false teachers, his own impending death, and the nature of the coming of Christ.
  11. So he considered it the "right" thing to do to stir up, warn, and remind positive volition.
  12. The words "as long as I am in this earthly dwelling/tent" refer to his very transitory existence in the tent of his natural body.
  13. The noun "dwelling" refers to a tent-like abode with particular emphasis on non-permanency (cp. Acts.7:48 and 2Pet.1:14).
  14. The human body is more like a tent than a house (cf. 2Cor.5:1-6).
  15. Peterís goal was "to stir up" believers with regard to matters that they had already become acquainted with.
  16. Again, this information was not new to them, but worthy of repetition.
  17. Peter understood a prophecy uttered by the Lord Jesus Christ concerning the time and circumstances of his death.
  18. Hence, the perfect participle "knowing".
  19. Peter knew that his death was "imminent", or "soon" to take place (the adj.n.f.s., tachinos).
  20. Jesus had prophesied that Peter would die in old age (Jn.21:18).
  21. Christ also "made it clear" that he would willingly die a martyrís death.
  22. A fact that Peter refers to euphemistically.
  23. The prophecy of Jn.21:18 was probably known throughout the body of Christ.
  24. But Peter does not use it to manipulate their emotions.
  25. He refers to his dramatic and violent death in the most sanitized of terms.
  26. He does tell them that the Lord Jesus Christ revealed his death to him.
  27. The verb "made clear" means to impart information in the most plain and clear fashion possible.
  28. Again, in this verse he refers to death as a "laying aside" of the natural body (cf. 2Cor.5:8).
  29. At the point of physical death brought on by crucifixion, Peterís soul entered into the presence of the Lord and his body remained on earth awaiting the resurrection from the dead.
Help Beyond the Grave (v.15)

VERSE 15 And I will also be diligent (spouda,sw de. kai. [fut.act.ind.1.s., spouda,zw, spoudazo, be eager/diligent, + conj., de, and, + conj./ascensive, also]) that at any time after my departure (e`ka,stote meta. th.n evmh.n e;xodon [adj./adv., hekastote, at any time; 1X + prep., meta, after, + def.art.w.adj./pro./poss.acc.f.s., emos, my, w/acc.f.s., e;xodoj, exodos, departure, exodus; historically of the Exodus of Israel from Egypt]) you will be able to call these things to mind (e;cein u`ma/j th.n tou,twn mnh,mhn poiei/sqai [pres.act.infin., echo, have; "be able", + pro.acc.p., su, "you", + pres.mid.infin., poieo, do; "to call" or recall, + pro./demon.gen.nt.p., houtos, "these things", w/def.art.w/acc.f.s., mneme, memory; "to mind"]).

ANALYSIS: VERSE 15

  1. The diligence spoken of in this verse has to do with the writing and sending of 2Peter.
  2. The words "And I will also be diligent" (a favorite concept of his in this chapter) speaks to his tenacity with respect to his gift to the very end of his life.
  3. Peterís willingness to feed and shepherd the flock as an apostle resulted in a final application, the writing of Second Peter, precipitated by the rise of false teachers.
  4. This explains how Peter was able to extend his spiritual influence from beyond the grace.
  5. Hence, the words "that at any time after my departure".
  6. The noun "departure" is used here as a euphemism for physical death (like the noun "sleep").
  7. It is of interest to note that this term (e;xodoj) is used in the Transfiguration story in Lk.9:31.
  8. There it is used of Christís exodus from the earth to the third heaven (ascension).
  9. It is used one other time in Heb.11:22 of Josephís faith when he demanded that his bones be removed from Egypt at the time of the Exodus.
  10. Here it is used of the physical death of the believer in which the real you (i.e., the immortal soul) is released form the body and transferred to heaven.
  11. Scripture teaches that upon physical death the believer is "with the Lord" who is in heaven (2Cor.5:8), which status will be perpetuated in the resurrection state (1Thess.4:17Ö"thus we shall always be with the Lord").
  12. The words "you will be able to call these things to mind" refers to the perpetuation of Peterís divine viewpoint in the books that bear his name (First and Second Peter and Mark).
  13. Peterís future diligence refers to the effort that he makes in the body of this letter which, being canonical, has been preserved for the Churchís perusal over the centuries.
  14. Peter certainly enabled a far larger audience the opportunity to do their own reminding with respect to what he simply calls "these things".
  15. "These things" are mentioned in vv.5-7 (7 virtues) and the reinforcement in vv.8-11.
  16. Whenever theological liberals try to mislead believers, we can refer to information such as we find in Second Peter.
  17. Our study of Second Peter is a reminder of the things which, if taken seriously, can deliver us from the loss associated with the lust that is in the world.
  18. The reference in this verse is almost certainly to Second Peter.
  19. The tense of the verb "I will also be diligent" is admittedly difficult, but employing the future even as he writes looks forward to the sections of the letter he is about to compose.
  20. Peterís language is revealing in other respects, for it anticipates a time when the living witness of the apostles is no longer operative and the Church needs the stamp of apostolic authority on the writings left behind.
The Apostolic Witness (vv.16-18)

What it was not (v.16)

VERSE 16 For we did not follow cleverly devised tales (Ouv ga.r evxakolouqh,santej sesofisme,noij mu,qoij [neg. + conj./declar., gar, for, + aor.act.pt.n.m.p., evxakolouqe,w, exakoloutheo, follow after; 3X: 2Pet.1:16; 2:2,15, + pf.pass.pt.dat.m.pl., sofi,zw, sophizo, make someone wise, instruct; cleverly thought up; 2X: 2Tim.3:15, + dat.m.p., mu/qoj, muthos, myth, fable, legend; 5X: 1Tim.1:4,7; 2Tim.4:4; Ti.1:14]) when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ (evgnwri,samen u`mi/n th.n du,namin kai.parousi,an tou/ kuri,ou h`mw/n VIhsou/ Cristou/ [aor.act.ind.1.p., gnwri,zw, gnorizo, make known, + pro.dat.p., su, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., dunamis, power, + conj. + acc.f.s., parousia, coming; shares the article with dunamis, + def.art.w/gen.n.s., kurios, + Iesous + Christos]), but we were eyewitnesses of His majesty (avllV evpo,ptai genhqe,ntej th/j evkei,nou megaleio,thtoj [conj., alla, but, + aor.dep.pt.n.m.p., ginomai, become, come to be, + n.m.p., evpo,thj, epotes, eyewitness, observer; hapax, + pro./demon.gen.m.s., ekeinos, refers to something relatively remote or absent from the immediate setting, + def.art.w/gen.f.s., megaleio,thj, megaleiotes, mighty power, majesty; 3X: Lk.9:43; Acts.19:27]).

ANALYSIS: VERSE 16

  1. Peter now comes to closer grips with his main theme, the Second Advent of Christ.
  2. The implementation of the 7 virtues is required, as Christ is coming back as Judge and Ruler.
  3. The apostolic presentation of this fact was not along the lines of "cleverly devised tales".
  4. The "we" of the first aorist plural participle refers to the men who communicated epignosis eschatology to the "alpha church".
  5. Those who faithfully and accurately communicated prophecy did so apart from any additions or subtractions.
  6. By using the "we", Peter identifies himself with all who faithfully communicated the particulars related to the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.
  7. So the "we" refers to a broad category of apostles, prophets, evangelists, and Pastor-Teachers.
  8. Peter knows that the readers of this letter had heard and followed the true eschatology (doctrine of last things).
  9. The inference behind "cleverly devised tales/myths" is that the false teachers were alleging that the doctrines of prophecy taught were an ingenious mythology foisted upon Christians.
  10. This inference seems preferable to the one that has Peter attacking the fanciful theorizings of certain false teachers (call them "cleverly devised tales"), thus contrasting the apostolic version of these things.
  11. We know from the letter that the coming false teachers would deny the fact of Christís return (3:4).
  12. What was "made known", or "revealed", to believers is the nature of Christís Second Advent.
  13. The phrase "the power and the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" is yet another example of the Granville Sharp rule (one def. art. serves both nouns).
  14. Jesus Christís coming will certainly feature power.
  15. The specifics are to be found in the prophetic writings of the Old and New Testaments.
  16. The details are found in the books and verses of the Old and New Testaments.
  17. The correct prophetic scheme is attained by correctly dividing the Scripture.
  18. This is not an easy task but is doable.
  19. The prophetic scheme laid down in Scripture is not the product of fabrication and collusion by the writers of the Bible.
  20. It is the product of God the HS revealing the future to selected men (see vv.20,21).
  21. Furthermore, the understanding of the correct prophetic scheme is accomplished by the IHS toward those who are genuine seekers (Jn.16:13,14).
  22. The words "but were eyewitness of His majesty" refers to those who eyewitnessed the transfiguration (Mt.17:1-8).
  23. So the "we" of this phrase is considerably narrower in scope than the "we" of "we did not followÖ".
  24. The "we" here refers to Peter, James, and John.
  25. James died a martyr at the very outset of the Church Age (Acts.12:2), leaving Peter and John as the only living eyewitnesses of the transfiguration.
  26. Verses 17,18 make it clear that the "majesty" Peter speaks of is that of the transfiguration and not Christís post-resurrection appearances.
  27. The noun "eyewitness" (n.m.p.) is a hapax.
  28. The corresponding verb evpopteu,w (epopteuo) occurs only in 1Pet.2:12 and 3:2.
  29. Is this yet another indirect indication of common authorship?
  30. It connotes an attentive onlooker or observer of a phenomenon.
  31. The noun was used in the mystery cults of the time of higher-grade initiates who had been admitted to the spectacle of the sacred cult objects. (e.g., Plutarch).
  32. The general sense of "spectator" is the idea in the present context.
  33. Jesusí "majesty" was momentarily put on display on the Mount of Transfiguration (Mt. Tabor, 10 miles SE of Nazareth).
  34. The glory of His inner deity burst through His body and clothing so that "His face shone like the sun, and His garments became as white as light".
  35. Moses and Elijah (two witnesses of the Trib.) made a special appearance and conversed with Jesus (they, of course, had never met the Messiah!).
  36. The whole episode was designed to mimic the Second Advent.
  37. This is the doctrine that is the object of special attack by the false teachers.
  38. Peter categorically denies that neither he nor the others who have taught the doctrine of the Second Coming of Jesus Christ are charlatans who have schemed to mislead Christians.
  39. The conjunction "but" (alla) serves to contrast with what he and the true teachers of doctrine are not, and what some from among their number eyewitnessed.
  40. Peter not only, over the course of his ministry, "made known" the character of Jesusí Second Advent, but he was an "eyewitness" to an event that was designed to be a harbinger of the Second Coming.
  41. That event was the transfiguration.
  42. Peter isnít trying to impress anyone with his credentials, but is simply reporting a historical reality that he happened to be privy to (he and only two other witnesses).
  43. The content of Peterís sensory experience is described here as simply "His majesty".
  44. Jesusí majesty is based on the reality of the hypostatic union and His glorification.
  45. "His majesty" is unsurpassed.
Eyewitness Authentication at the Transfiguration (vv.17,18)

VERSE 17 For when He received honor and glory from God the Father (labw.n ga.r para. qeou/ patro.j timh.n kai. do,xan [conj., gar, + aor.act.pt.n.m.s., lambano, receive, + prep., para, from, w/gen.m.s., theos, + gen.m.s., pater, + acc.f.s., time, honor, + conj. + acc.f.s., doza, glory]), such an utterance as this was made to Him by the Majestic Glory (fwnh/j evnecqei,shj auvtw/| toia/sde u`po. th/j megaloprepou/j do,xhj [gen./reference f.s., phone, sound, voice; "utterance", + aor.pass.pt.gen.f.s., fe,rw, phero, bear, carry; "was made", + pro.dat.m.s., autos, "to Him", + adj./demonstr.gen.f.s., toio,sde, toiosde, of such a kind; 1X + prep., hupo, w/def.art.w/adj.gen.f.s., megalopreph,j, megaloprepes, majestic; 1X + gen.f.s., doza, glory]), "This is My beloved Son with whom I am well-pleased (ou-to,jevstin O ui`o,j mou o` avgaphto,j moueivj o]n evgw. euvdo,khsa [pro./demons.n.m.s., houtos, this, + pres.act.ind.3.s., eimi, + def.art.w/n.m.s., huios, son, + pro.gen.m.s., ego; "My", + def.art.w/adj.n.m.s., agapetos, beloved, dear, + pro.gen.m.s., ego, "My", + prep.w/pro./rel.acc.m.s., hos, whom, + pro.n.m.s., ego, "I", + aor.act.ind.1.p.s., euvdoke,w, eudokeo, be pleased; take delight in; cp. Mt.3:17; Mk.1:11; Lk.3:22 {Christís baptism}; Mt.17:5 {transfiguration}])" Ė

VERSE 18 and we ourselves heard this utterance (kai. tau,thn th.n fwnh.n h`mei/j hvkou,samen [conj. + pro.n.m.p., ego, "we", + aor.act.ind.1.p., akouo, hear, + pro./demon.acc.f.s., houtos, this, + def.art.w/acc.f.s., phone, voice]) made from heaven when we were with Him on the holy mountain (evx ouvranou/ evnecqei/san su.n auvtw/| o;ntej evn tw/| a`gi,w| o;rei [prep.w/abl.m.s., ouranos, heaven, + aor.pass.pt.acc.f.s., fe,rw, phero, bring, carry; at 2Pet.1:13,17,21; 2:11; also 1Pet.1:13; "made", + pres.act.pt.n.m.p., eimi, "when we were", + prep.w/pro.dat.m.s., autos, "with Him", + prep.w/def.art.w/adj.loc.nt.s., hagios, holy, + loc.nt.s., horos, mountain]).

ANALYSIS: VERSES 17,18

  1. In these two verses Peter elaborates on the event in the life of Christ on earth that was designed to validate in no uncertain terms the doctrine of "the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ."
  2. Peter now specifies the occasion when he and his two companions had this unique experience some 33 years earlier.
  3. It was the occasion when Jesus "received honor and glory from God the Father".
  4. In what form did that distinction on that occasion manifest itself?
  5. Verse 17 tells us that it was the words spoken to Jesus by His Father that constituted the "honor and glory".
  6. It was not the radiance of His person, but the words spoken "by the Majestic Glory" that brought "honor and glory" to Christ.
  7. There are two aorist participles in v.17.
  8. The first is translated "when He received", or literally, "having received".
  9. The second is "was made", or literally, is "having been made", or "brought forth from".
  10. The verb is fe,rw, to bear or carry.
  11. The action of the two participles is contemporaneous.
  12. A possible translation: "For having received honor and glory from God the Father when such an utterance was transmitted to Him from the Majestic Glory".
  13. The communication, or "utterance" according to the Gospel accounts, was from the "bright cloud that overshadowed" those assembled (Mt.17:5).
  14. All three synoptic gospels record this event (Mt.17:1-7; Mk.9:2-8; Lk.9:28-36).
  15. The cloud symbolized "the majestic glory".
  16. This expression occurs only here in the N.T., but is used of God in the O.T. (cp. Ex.15:6,11; Job.37:4; Pss.8:1,10; 29:4; Isa.33:21; 63:1).
  17. So "glory" is personified.
  18. The adjective "majestic" (megalopreph,j) refers to something that is way beyond the ordinary, as in the word sublime.
  19. His glory refers to His divine attributes.
  20. On three separate occasions over the course of Jesusí public ministry God the Father pronounced (spoke audibly) in the presence of witnesses to His Son.
  21. The first occasion was at Christís baptism (Mt.3:17; 17:5 and Jn.12:28).
  22. All three occasions were a declaration of Jesusí fitness for the work He came to accomplish.
  23. It authenticated His sinless life and His unimpeachable teaching.
  24. The terms "Beloved" and "well-pleased" are echoed from the Messianic prophecy of Isa.42:1-4.
  25. Isaiah 42:1 is echoed in Mt.3:17 and 17:5.
  26. Peter omits the words "listen to Him", which were a part of what the Father said on that occasion.
  27. Peter also omits mention of the presence of Moses and Elijah.
  28. The words "and we ourselves" refer, of course, to Peter, James, and John.
  29. The highlight of the happening was the words spoken by God the Father.
  30. The words "the holy mountain" refers most probably to Mt. Tabor (the other candidate is Mt. Hermon).
  31. Mt. Tabor towers over the region and is more reasonably accessible than a climb to the top of Mt. Hermon.
  32. Mt. Tabor overlooks the Jezreel Valley of which the valley of Megiddo is the northwestern part.
  33. Mt. Tabor is about 10 miles SE of Nazareth and rises 1843 ft. above sea level.
  34. From the summit one has a lovely view in all directions.
  35. To the NW the higher parts of the city of Nazareth are visible.
  36. At the foot of the mountain to the south is the valley of Jezreel.
  37. Mt. Tabor is visible from the Megiddo mound (SW from Tabor).
  38. This valley is the scene of the great battle of Armageddon (cf. Joel.3:14).
  39. Megiddo was an Israelite city in the Jezreel Plain.
  40. Megiddo was one of the most strategic points in Palestine and many crucial battles took place in its vicinity (ancient and modern).
  41. What a fitting place the top of Mt. Tabor was for Jesus to draw attention to the future glory of His Second Coming.
  42. It is called "the holy mountain" because of what happened there that day in the life of Christ.
  43. Just as Mount Sinai is forever holy because of what happened there in the 15th century BC (Ex.3:5).
  44. The epithet "holy" was used of any place where God revealed Himself in a special way in O.T. times.
  45. Peter uses the incident to emphasize his authoritative knowledge of the historical Jesus (and to thereby rebut the false teachersí talks about "myths"), to stress the solidarity between Jesusí ministry and the apostolic message regarding the doctrine of the Second Advent.
  46. Jesusí action on the occasion of the transfiguration was a positive pledge of the future coming in glory which certain false teachers scoffed at.
The Importance of Bible Prophecy (v.19)

VERSE 19 And so we have the prophetic word made more sure (kai. e;comen bebaio,teron to.n profhtiko.n lo,gon [conj., kai; "So", + pres.act.ind.1.p. echo, have, + def.art.w/adj.acc.m.s., profhtiko,j, prophetikos, prophetic; 2X: Rom.16:26, + acc.m.s., logos, word, + adj./compar.acc.m.s., be,baioj, bebaios, firm, secure; reliable, trustworthy; cp. 1:10]), to which you do well to pay attention (w-| kalw/j poiei/te prose,contej [pro./rel.dat.m.s., hos; "to which", + adv., kalos, well, + pres.act.ind.2.p., poieo, do, + pres.act.pt.n.m.p., prose,cw, prosecho, pay attention to]) as to a lamp shining in a dark place (w`j lu,cnw| fai,nonti evn auvcmhrw/| to,pw| [adv., hos, as, + dat.m.s., lu,cnoj, luchnos, lamp, + pres.act.pt.dat.m.s., fai,nw, phaino, shine, + prep.w/adj.dat.m.s., auvcmhro,j, auchmeros, dark, dismal, squalid, dirty, + dat.m.s., topos, place]), until the day dawns and the morning star arises in your hearts (e[wj ou- h`me,ra diauga,sh| kai. fwsfo,roj avnatei,lh| evn tai/j kardi,aij u`mw/n [prep., heos, until, w/pro./rel.gen.m.s., hos, which; "the", + n.f.s., hemera, day, + aor.act.subj.3.s., diauga,zw, diaugazo, dawn; 1X + conj., + adj.n.m.s., fwsro,roj, phosroros, morning star, venus, + aor.act.subj.3.s., avnate,llw, anatello, cause to rise up; here, metaphorically of increased understanding of spiritual issues; the vb. indicates upward movement; cp. Mt.4:16; 5:45; Lk.12:54; "arises", + prep.w/def.art.w/loc.f.p., kardia, + pro.gen.m.p., su]).

ANALYSIS: VERSE 19

  1. Peter continues to discuss the importance of the transfiguration as it relates to "the prophetic word".
  2. The opening kai, translated "so" here, is used to add a resultant fact.
  3. The translation "And so" brings out the idea.
  4. "We have" is the present active indicative first person plural of echo, to have.
  5. The "we" in the verb corresponds to the emphatic "we ourselves" of v.18 (cp. "we were eyewitnesses" of v.16).
  6. It refers to the three apostles who were eyewitnesses to the transfiguration (Mt.17).
  7. The "we" stands in contrast to the "you" of this verse.
  8. "The prophetic word" refers to the O.T. prophecies relating to the Second Advent.
  9. It refers to that portion of the O.T. that is predicative prophecy.
  10. Predicative prophecy falls into two broad categories: fulfilled and unfulfilled.
  11. The adjective translated "made more sure" is the comparative form of be,baioj (bebaios, steadfast, sure).
  12. "More sure" is the translation in the NASB.
  13. The question is, in what sense were the O.T. prophecies regarding the Second Coming "made more sure"?
  14. What happened on the Mount of Transfiguration "confirmed", or "validated", what was written in the O.T. prophetic word.
  15. Had this event not occurred, the O.T. prophecies would have been just as reliable.
  16. The transfiguration simply added validity to something that is inviolable.
  17. Peter, James, and John (3 witnesses) had a confirmation that was made available to no other persons (hence the "we").
  18. "To which" refers to O.T. prophecy pertaining to the Second Coming.
  19. Peter compliments the readers on their understanding and faith in that body of revealed truth.
  20. The words "you do well to pay attention", or "you do well paying attention", refers to their positive volition towards "the prophetic word" in particular.
  21. The present participle "pay attention" is prose,cw (proscheo), which means, literally, "to have before".
  22. The word also occurs in the Apocalypse of Peter as a description of hell.
  23. The words "as to a lamp" draw a comparison.
  24. Bible prophecy is "a lamp" which provides light in an otherwise "dark place".
  25. The "dark place" is cosmos diabolicus.
  26. The adjective "dark" (auvcmhro,j, auchmeros)occurs only here and means "squalid, dirty, dark, murky".
  27. The devilís world is truly a dismal place when viewed from the divine viewpoint or by contrast to the coming kingdom of God.
  28. The metaphor of Scripture as a torch illuminating a murky room, is both well known and apt (cf. Ps.119:105).
  29. The light shows up the dirt and provides an alternative world view for those who are positive.
  30. We are to walk by the torchlight of prophecy "until the day dawns and the morning star arises in your hearts".
  31. What are we to make of this phrase?
  32. "Until" ( heos, adv. of time) refers to the advance of the Church Age.
  33. "The day" refers to the Millennial Age bracketed by the Second Advent and the dissolution of the universe in preparation for the new creation (Mal.4:2; 2Pet.3:10).
  34. The night refers to the Church Age and the Tribulation (cf. Rom.13:12).
  35. The dawning of the day refers to the period of the Rapture generation (Laodicean era of the omega church) through the Tribulation to the Second Advent.
  36. Its day dawns when history moves into the final generation.
  37. The final generation is the time from the founding of the state of Israel until the Second Advent.
  38. The whole period is a period of moral and spiritual darkness with the darkest night occurring just before dawn (Rapture generation and Trib.).
  39. The full light of day begins with the sun arising on the eastern horizon (Second Advent) and its daytime circuit (1,000 yrs.).
  40. The other astronomical metaphor Peter uses is the "morning star", which is a reference to the planet Venus (closest planet to the earth).
  41. The Greek noun is, literally, "the day-star" (fwsfo,roj, phosphoros; compound from "light" and "to bring").
  42. In Rev.2:28 the Greek reads "the morning star" (to.n avste,ra to,n prwi?o,n, ton astera ton proion, the morning star), and in Rev.22:16 the reading is "the bright morning star".
  43. Venus, at certain times of the year, appears as a bright light appearing in the heavens just before dawn.
  44. The "morning star" refers to Jesus Christ (Rev.22:16; cp. 2:28).
  45. Christ will appear for the Church before the Millennial day begins.
  46. Christ is both the morning, or day, star and the sun in astronomical symbolism.
  47. Venus, with a magnitude that varies between Ė3.3 and Ė4.4, is brighter than any other planet or fixed star.
  48. Thatís why at times it is the first "star" to appear in the evening, and at other times it is the last to disappear in the morning.
  49. That is also why it is called the evening and the morning star.
  50. At the time of its greatest brightness it can be seen in daylight.
  51. It is clearly visible in the brightest dawn.
  52. It can be seen when the sun rises.
  53. In Greek literature phosphoros is applied not only to the morning star (i.e., Venus) but also to divine and royal persons.
  54. The rising of the morning star in the hearts of believers refers to the awareness of specific prophetic signs that signal the return of Christ.
  55. The verb "arises" (aor.act.subj. avnate,llw, anatello, rise, shine forth) is used metaphorically of spiritual awareness of being a part of the Rapture generation.
  56. Believers living before the specific signs were historical realities could have the understanding without the corresponding historical fulfillment.
  57. The determinative sign is Israelís re-establishment as a nation among the nations.
  58. From 70AD to 1948AD Israel was a non nation among the nations.
  59. Ignorance of Bible prophecy has led many over the centuries of the Church Age to "cry wolf" with respect to Christís coming.
  60. Ignorance of the same prophecies has led others to deny that it is even possible to identify the final generation.
  61. No national Israel, no coming of Christ, is our motto.
  62. Just as the morning star in not always visible, so Christís coming was not always possible.
  63. For informed believers living in the Rapture generation, "the morning star" has arisen in their hearts.
  64. For us, the prophetic word consists of the end-time prophecies of both the Old and New Testaments.
  65. Old and New Testament prophecies have been, and continue to be, fulfilled so that all things can be in place so Christ can return.
  66. Prophetic realization has been taking place since apostolic times.
  67. Again, the prophecy that has turned the corner, so to speak, is the re-establishment of national Israel along with sovereignty over Jerusalem (1967).
  68. The only thing that needs to be realized is the building of the third temple.
  69. The temple must be operational before the onset of the Tribulation.
  70. The reality of Christís private coming for the Church is in our "hearts" because we know the doctrine and because we live at this time.
  71. We need to continue "to pay attention" to the "prophetic word" which was confirmed to three men when Christ was transfigured.
The Interpretation of Prophecy (v.20)

VERSE 20 But know this first of all (tou/to prw/ton ginw,skontej [pro.\demons., acc.nt.s., this + adv., proton, "first of all" as a matter of first importance + pres.act.pt.n.m.p., ginosko, know], that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one's own interpretation[o[ti pa/sa profhtei,a grafh/j ivdi,aj evpilu,sewj ouv gi,netai [conj., hoti, here used after a vb. of perception, to introduce what is perceived + adj.n.f.s., pas, all, every + n.f.s., prophetia, prophecy + gen.f.s., graphe, writing; Scripture] + pres.dep.ind.3.s., ginomai w/neg. + adj.gen.f.s., idios, oneís own + gen.f.s., epilusis, literally a setting free, liberation; fig. of explaining what is obscure as in an explanation, interpretation; 1x]),

The Source of Prophecy (v.21)

VERSE 21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will (ouv ga.r profhtei,a pote, hvne,cqh qelh,mati avnqrw,pou [neg., ou + conj. gar + n.f.s., propheteia, prophecy + adv.\indef., pote ever when used after a neg. + aor.pass.ind.3.s., fe,rw phero, carry; "was made" + dat.nt.s., thelema, will, purpose + gen.m.s., anthropos, man], but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God [avlla. u`po. pneu,matoj a`gi,ou fero,menoi evla,lhsan avpo. qeou/ a;nqrwpoi [conj., alla, but + n.m.p., anthropos; "men" + pres.pass.pt.n.m.p. phero, bring, bear, carry; "moved" + prep. hupo w/adj.gen.nt.s., hagios, holy + gen.nt.s., pneuma, spirit + aor.act.ind.3.p. laleo, speak + prep., apo w/gen.m.s., theos]).

ANALYSIS: VERSES 20-21

  1. Peter concludes this section on the importance of Bible prophecy with first a negative (v.20) followed by a positive statement (v.21) regarding the essential nature of biblical prophecy.
  2. The false teachers who scoff at the prophetic revelation regarding the coming of Christ disregard the literal grammatical approach to biblical exegesis/interpretation.
  3. The theological liberals do not take the Scripture seriously (and literally); they have not a clue to its proper understanding, which the true conservatives have, as the false prophtes are out of sync with the Author- God the Holy Spirit.
  4. The phrase "but know this first of all" (tou/to prw/ton) means in our idiom, "above all" or "as a matter of first importance know this."
  5. The particular false teachers which are the focus of Peterís polemic deny the integrity of the Scripture in general and the prophetic word in particular.
  6. This has ever been the case.
  7. These individuals have sprung up like weeds over the course of the church age.
  8. But for those who hold to the validity of the WOG there is a fundamental presupposition with respect to the nature of Scripture.
  9. Peter declares "that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of oneís own interpretation."
  10. This is another way of making reference to each and every prophecy found in Scripture.
  11. The main challenge of v.20 concerns the meaning of the noun evpilu,sewj (epiluseos) translated "interpretation" in the versions.
  12. This word occurring only here in the NT means an emancipation or a setting free.
  13. It is used here in a figurative sense of an explanation or interpretation.
  14. The cognate verb occurs in Mk.4:34 and Acts.19::39: in both instances its means to unravel a problem.
  15. The two main ways of taking it are, first, no prophecy (biblical) arises from the prophetís own interpretation or derivation; and second, no prophecy is to be understood by private or self-generated interpretation.
  16. The second view is the preferred as seen in the fact that the false teachers misinterpret Scripture (2:1; 3:16).
  17. Bible Prophecy is neither given (v.21) nor interpreted rightly (v.20) by man, rather the Holy Spirit is the director of both functions.
  18. Verse 20 deals with the interpretative phase of prophetic understanding while verse 21 deals with how Bible prophecies were generated in the first place.
  19. Peter reverses the order in these two verses.
  20. The prophetic word does us no good unless it is interpreted accurately.
  21. And since Bible prophecy has its origin in the mind of God it cannot be properly understood apart from the assistance of the ultimate Author- God the HS.
  22. In v.21 Peter draws our attention to the origin of the many prophecies of Scripture.
  23. He begins by declaring that no "prophecy" ever "came by the will of man."
  24. He means of course "no prophecy of Scripture" (cf. v.20).
  25. Over the course of manís history many prophecies have arisen that are the product of what Peter calls "the will (or volition) of man."
  26. God through the prophet Ezekiel condemned self-inspiration (Ezek.13:2,17).
  27. Many prophesy as seen in the above citation in the name of God.
  28. Salvation is not according to the assertion of human will (Jn.1:12).
  29. Human history is jam-packed with false prophets and their prophecies.
  30. Only the prophecies of Scripture are 100% reliable.
  31. The problem isnít with the content of Scripture it is with the interpretation.
  32. At both points (initial revelation to a prophet of God & GAP) God the HS is indispensable.
  33. In v.21 Peter affirms that all the authors of Scripture were "men moved by the Holy Spirit."
  34. The "men" are the various authors of the Old and New Testaments who "spoke from God."
  35. The aorist indicative 3rd person plural of "spoke" (lale,w) means to communicate a message.
  36. This refers to the final product or the original autograph.
  37. The verb "moved" points to the process of writing for posterity what had been revealed to them whatever the medium (dreams, visions, etc.).
  38. The present passive participle of the verb fe,rw means to Ďcarryí or Ďbear along.í
  39. The transmission was initiated by the HS and the willing prophet wrote down ("spoke") Godís complete and accurate revelation.
  40. The 3rd person of the Godhead was the divine agent that insured that the final product was exactly what God wanted apart from any admixture of error.
  41. In the process the individual prophetís personality and writing style was preserved.
  42. This process is no longer going on with the completion of the book of Revelation.
  43. Peter here is presenting the doctrine of the divine origin of Scripture in v.21.
  44. A similar process is involved in the interpretation of the many prophecies of Scripture (v.20).
  45. V.21 is perhaps the fullest and most explicit biblical reference to the inspiration of the human authors of Scripture (cp. 2Tim.3:16).
  46. No interest should be displayed in the psychology of inspiration.
  47. Peter is not concerned with how they felt, or even how much they understood, but simply with the fact that they were bearers of Godís message.
  48. The relative parts played by the divine and human authors are not mentioned, but only the fact of their cooperation.
  49. Peter uses an expressive verb ("moved by" or "carried along by") that is also used in Acts.27:15 & 17 of a ship carried along by the wind.
  50. The prophets raised their sails so to speak (they were obedient and receptive), and the HS carried their craft (individuality) in the direction He wished.
  51. God spoke: men spoke.
  52. Any sound doctrine will not neglect either the divine or human part of this truth as is the case with the doctrine of the God-Man.
  53. We should take into consideration all we can learn of the background of the human agent who cooperated with God.
  54. Revelation was not a matter of robotic reception: it meant active cooperation.
  55. The HS did not use robots; He used men.
  56. Peterís understanding of divine inspiration is in marked contrast to his contemporary, the Jewish philosopher Philo.
  57. Philo saw it as a compulsive divine possession which turned the human writer into a theophoros a ĎGod-bearerí (Mut. Nom. i, p.609, de Somn. p.689).
  58. There is no suggestion that the sacred authors were besides themselves like the analogy of the Bacchic frenzies cites by Philo; they were carried along in the path of Godís will by their own willing consent.
  59. God revealed His truth through personalities, as was demonstrated in the incarnation.
  60. Moreover, He did not use any men, but adjusted men who were dedicated to truth.
  61. They were "moved," not because they were out of their minds (as the heathen imagine enthousiasmos in their prophets), but because they dared nothing by themselves but only in obedience to the their infallible Guide, God the HS.
  62. In should now be apparent that Peter has been replying to charges by the false teachers.
  63. To their contention that the apostles were purveying myths about Jesus, His power and coming.
  64. Peter says ĎNot so: we were with Him at the transfiguration, we were eyewitnesses.í
  65. He then adduces the OT as a witness that is even more unimpeachable than the apostlesí experience on the Mount of transfiguration.
  66. But the false teachers respond by rejecting the authority of Scripture, denying its divine origin, and say that the human authors simply advanced their own ideas.
  67. So Peter responds by simply asserting that Scripture has indeed a divine origin, and when the writing prophets "spoke from God" they were men in touch with God who used them as His spokesmen.
  68. This should be the position we should fall back on when facing liberal critics and various apostates.
END: 2 Peter Chapter One

Jack M. Ballinger

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